how the cell membrane and tonoplast together determine the movement of molecule in or out of the cell? explain with the help of diagram.

Please find below the solution to the asked query

Tonoplast is the outer covering of vacuole in plants. It contains various ion channels and aquaporins which provide sites for the movement of water and molecules in and out of the vacuole mainly by active transport. Also protons move into vacuole from cytosol which creates electromotive force or energy production for movement of molecules in vacuole.
The vacuole stores salts, water, minerals. It either pumps water and mineral ions into the cytosol or removes water and mineral ions from it by moving them inside vacuole. This creates the difference in water and ion concentration (osmotic gradient) inside and outside of the cell. The concentration gradient between inside and outside of the cell membrane activates ion channels and acuaporins in cell membrane to transport water and ions in or out of the cell.

Hope this information will clear your doubts about the cell membrane and tonoplast.

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