how the time was measured when pendulum clocks were not available
In ancient Egypt, people used shadow clocks to keep track of the hours. Using the shadows that the sun creates, the Egyptians were the first to divide the day into twenty-four hours. Meanwhile, other cultures were developing time-telling devices of their own. All of these devices were versions of sundials circular timepieces with evenly-spaced lines and a gnomon that casts a shadow when the sun shines on it. Sundials were the first reliable timepieces. However, since sundials work by casting a shadow in a particular direction, they do not work at night. To fix this issue, Prince Amenemhet invented a water clock. This early version of an hour glass was simply a water bucket with a small hole. Amenemhet measured how much water would leak out in an hours time and then mark the bucket accordingly. Water clocks were not without error, however. The main issue with water clocks is that there are variable factors. For example, temperature can affect the speed of water flow.