In NO-3 ion 4 bonds are formed to share electrons but N has 5 electrons in its valence shell so.there must be a sharing of 10 electrons but 8 electrons are shared? Briefly explain the lewis structure of it also assign formal charges.

Dear Students

In NO3-, nitrogen has four bond pairs with zero lone pairs. This can be explained through the Lewis Structure -

Each atom in NO3- is surrounded by four pairs of electrons, total there are eight electrons.
On an average, one electron of the pair in each bond belongs to one atom. Since there are four bonds with zero unshared valence electron pairs, thus N on the average has four valence electrons in these three structures. 
Initially, N possessed five electrons, and a plus sign is placed at N to denote that it on an average has one electrons less in the NO3- ion. The two single bonded oxygen on an average has seven electrons in each structure, one more than the neutral oxygen atom, which is denoted by a negative sign. The double bonded oxygen on an average has six electrons. The sum of these formal charges is minus one which is for NO3- ion. 


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