In reported speech does simple present in direct speech remains simple present in reported speech?

Whether 'simple present' would remain the same or change to 'simple past' in reported speech depends on the context of the sentence. 

Consider the following:

The teacher said, "The sun rises in the east". 
The teacher said that the sun rises in the east. 

The tense here does not change because a universal truth is true in the same manner at all points of time. 

However:

The teacher said, "Close the door, Rajeev, there is a draught coming."
The teacher told Rajeev to close the door because there was a draught coming. 

Here, the incident has already happened when it is being reported. Therefore, the tense changes to 'simple past'. 

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It depends on the reporting speech if it is in past then the simple present tense will change in simple past
 
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for example i am a writer then why does it become he said that he is a writer
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