In sp3d sp3d2 and sp3d3 hybridisation which d orbital is participating??? Pls explain hypervalency

Dear Student,

All the  d-orbitals are of similar energy i.e. are degenerate therefore, any of the d-orbital can be used. But the type of orbitall depends upon the overallping of the orbital and the internuclear axis. 
For eg. sp​3d has only one d-orbital So the one at internuclear axis i.e. dz2 forms bond here. 
In sp3d2 i.e. octahedral structure splitting of d-orbital occurs into t2g and eg. The orbitals used depends on the direction of the attacking electrons.So, dx2-y2 and dz2 or any two of the three orbitals can participate.
In sp3d3 three d orbitals are used which are dxy​,​ dx2-y2 and dz2 .
Hypervalency is the ability of an atom in a molecular entity to expand its valence shell beyond the limits of the Lewis octet rule. For eg. PCl5, SF6 etc.

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