IUPAC does not recognise some functional groups and add them to the name as prefix instead of suffix, these are  nitro, nitroso, cyno , bromo and so on and treated as subtituents. But in principle, they are truly functional groups. How many functional groups are treated as substituents? 

Dear student
Please find the solution to the asked query:

Depending upon the presence of other functional groups sometimes some functional groups like that of halogens are treated as prefixes.
For example Fluoroacetic acid , Chlorobenzene, Iodobenzene etc.
Sometimes for example in a compound of the type 4-bromo 3-methylheptanal
Here bromo is the prefix as methyl group , and aldehyde is present in the compound.

Cyano and isocyano are used as prefixes in compounds such as Cyanonitrile.
Nitro group is used as a prefix in compounds like Nitro methane.


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