IUPAC does not recognise some functional groups and add them to the name as prefix instead of suffix, these are  nitro, nitroso, cyno , bromo and so on and treated as subtituents. But in principle, they are truly functional groups. How many functional groups are treated as substituents? 

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Please find the solution to the asked query:

Depending upon the presence of other functional groups sometimes some functional groups like that of halogens are treated as prefixes.
For example Fluoroacetic acid , Chlorobenzene, Iodobenzene etc.
Sometimes for example in a compound of the type 4-bromo 3-methylheptanal
Here bromo is the prefix as methyl group , and aldehyde is present in the compound.

Cyano and isocyano are used as prefixes in compounds such as Cyanonitrile.
Nitro group is used as a prefix in compounds like Nitro methane.

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five functional group arre treated as substituent
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