j.j thomson model of an atom explain in dettail with pic...for my project..

In atomic physics , the **Bohr model** , introduced by Niels Bohr in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar in structure to the solar system , but with electrostatic forces providing attraction, rather than gravity . This was an improvement on the earlier cubic model (1902), the plum-pudding model (1904), the Saturnian model (1904), and the Rutherford model (1911). Since the Bohr model is a quantum-physics–based modification of the Rutherford model, many sources combine the two, referring to the **Rutherford–Bohr model** .

The model's key success lay in explaining the Rydberg formula for the spectral emission lines of atomic hydrogen. While the Rydberg formula had been known experimentally, it did not gain a theoretical underpinning until the Bohr model was introduced. Not only did the Bohr model explain the reason for the structure of the Rydberg formula, it also provided a justification for its empirical results in terms of fundamental physical constants.

The Bohr model is a primitive model of the hydrogen atom. As a theory, it can be derived as a first-order approximation of the hydrogen atom using the broader and much more accurate quantum mechanics, and thus may be considered to be an obsolete scientific theory. However, because of its simplicity, and its correct results for selected systems (see below for application), the Bohr model is still commonly taught to introduce students to quantum mechanics, before moving on to the more accurate but more complex valence shell atom. A related model was originally proposed by Arthur Erich Haas in 1910, but was rejected. The quantum theory of the period between Planck's discovery of the quantum (1900) and the advent of a full-blown quantum mechanics (1925) is often referred to as the old quantum theory.

**Rutherford–Bohr model**of the hydrogen atom (

*Z*= 1) or a hydrogen-like ion (

*Z*> 1), where the negatively charged electron confined to an atomic shell encircles a small, positively charged atomic nucleusand where an electron jump between orbits is accompanied by an emitted or absorbed amount of electromagnetic energy (

*hν*).

^{ [1] }The orbits in which the electron may travel are shown as grey circles; their radius increases as

*n*

^{2}, where

*n*is the principal quantum number. The 3 → 2 transition depicted here produces the first line of the Balmer series, and for hydrogen (

*Z*= 1) it results in a photon of wavelength 656 nm (red light).