List and define various properties of materials.
Give examples as well.

The properties of materials are as follows:

1. Appearance: The property of matter depicted through sight. Materials usually look different from each other. Wood looks very different from iron. Iron appears different from copper or aluminium.

2. Hardness: Materials which can be compressed or scratched easily are called soft while some other materials which are difficult to compress are called hard. For example, cotton or sponge is soft while iron is hard.

3. Solubility: some substances have completely disappeared or dissolved in water. We say that these substances are soluble in water. Other substances do not mix with water and do not disappear even after we stir for a long time. These substances are insoluble in water. E.g sugar dissolves in water while oil does not dissolve.

4. Object floating or sinking on water: The objects that are heavy generally sink while lighter ones float. Iron sinks while plastic floats.

5. Transparency: The objects through which we can see through are transparent while through which we cannot see are opaque. Some objects have partial visibility through them are translucent. For e.g Glass is transparent, plastic is translucent while paper is opaque. 

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A biomaterial is any substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose - either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science or biomaterials engineering. 

WOOD:- Wood is a composite material made from lignin and cellulose. Wood makes use of a lignin matrix and cellulose fibbers to form a polymer composite. The lignin holds the cellulose compressively in place so that the cellulose fibbers can carry tensile loads. 

CERAMICS:- A ceramic is a non-metallic material composed of inorganic molecules, normally prepared by heating a powder or slurry. Many common ceramics are made up of oxides or nitride compounds and are highly crystalline with long-range molecular order. 

Plastics are made up of millions of repeated links to make long molecules or networks that are tangled or cross linked together. Almost all polymers use carbon atoms in very long chains. The carbon atoms may be attached to other carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen atoms. Polymers may or may not have an orderly arrangement of atoms.

COMPOSITES:- Composites are mixtures of two or more bonded materials. Composites are the mixture of multiple materials, which in combination offer superior properties to the materials alone.

METALS;- Metals are comparatively malleable, optically reflective, and electrically conductive. Most metals and alloys are easily shaped by forming. Their disassociate electron bonding makes them excellent conductors of electricity and heat.
Glassy materials are hard, brittle, and noncrystalline. The lack of crystalline grains often results in optical transparency. The glass we are used to is a ceramic usually consisting of a mixture of silicates or sometimes borates or phosphates formed by fusion of silica or of oxides of boron or phosphorus with a flux and a stabilizer into a mass that cools to a rigid condition without crystallization.

ELECTRONIC:- Electronic materials are tailored to conduct electricity or light. These materials may be metals, ceramics or polymers.

GLASS:- Glassy materials are hard, brittle, and noncrystalline. The lack of crystalline grains often results in optical transparency.

METAMATERIAL:- A metamaterial is an engineered material specifically designed to exhibit a behaviour that can only occur at specific organizations and sizes of materials. Metamaterials often seem to break the rules of physical behaviour. 

CONCRETE:- Concrete is a ceramic composite made up of water, sand, gravel, crushed stone, and cement. The ingredients are mixed together thoroughly, and are poured into a form.

SEMICONDUCTORS:- Semiconductors are a special case of electronic material that combines two differently electrically conductive materials, usually ceramics. A semiconductor is also known as a P-N junction, where one material allows ‘loose’ electrons to move through an ordered structure, and the other allows holes (where an electron could be, but is not) to move in the same way
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