Mention the reason behind the break-up of the caliphate and the rise of sultanate .

Dear Student,

Reasons for the breakup of caliphate were:

a.  Civil war between the sons of caliph and supporters of Aminand Mamum,  which created opportunities for the Turkish to rise to power.
b.  The Turks who were the nomadic tribes gradually rose to prominence.
c. Increased factionalism and rise of smaller dynasties like Samanids, Tulunids resulted in the decline of Caliphate
d. Establishment of Fatimad caliphate , claiming that thy are the sole rightful owners of Islam.

Rise of Sultanate could be attributed to :

a. Consolidation of power and authority by Muhamad Ghazni, who established a strong army of Indians and Turks.
b. The support of the Caliph to Suni Ghaznivads to counter the influence of Shiites power.
c. The rise of the  Saljuq Turks after the death of Muhammd Ghazni, who first established control over Khurasan and later Iraq and Western Persia.


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