notes for sepration of substances please

anyways here are the notes

Separation of Substances I. Definitions: 1. Substances can be either pure or mixed. Pure substances are made up of only one kind of material. For example, Diamond, Oxygen, gold and copper 2. Mixtures are formed from two or more substances mixed together in a ratio. 3. These different substances that makes up a mixture are called as the components or constituents of the mixture. For example: Maida flour, Sugar, Baking powder and egg are the components of a cake mixture. 4. EXAMPLES OF MIXTURE:  Air is a mixture of several gases such as Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Water vapour and argon.  Milk is a mixture of water, protein and other substances.  Ice cream is a mixture of milk, sugar, added colours and flavours. 5. METHODS OF SEPARATION: I. SEPARATION OF SOLIDS FROM SOLIDS: 1. Threshing 2. Winnowing 3. Hand picking 4. Sieving 5. Magnetic Separation 1.Threshing Threshing is a method to separate the grain from the crop and to remove grains from the straw. This is carried out after harvesting the crop. II. Winnowing Winnowing is a method used to separate chaff from the grains Winnowing is based on the fact that if mixture is containing two components and one is lighter than the other, then both the components can be separated by blow of air. Mixture is allowed to fall from a height. Lighter component gets separated from heavier component due to wind. III.SEIVING Sieving is a method of separating the constituents of mixtures, which have particles of different sizes. IV.Hand picking Hand picking is a method of removing unwanted substances from a mixture by picking them carefully with hands. V. MAGNETIC SEPARATION Magnetic materials such as Iron, nickel and cobalt have the property of attraction towards a magnet. So we can make use of this property of magnetism to separate magnetic materials from their mixture.
2. SEPARATION OF INSOLUBLE SOLIDS FROM LIQUIDS 1. Insoluble solids are those that do not dissolve in a given liquid. 2. Insoluble solids can be separated from the given liquid in the following methods:- 1. Sedimentation 2. Decantation 3. Filtration a. Sedimentation: Sedimentation is a method in which the heavy particles of the insoluble solids are allowed to settle down. The particles that settle down forms a layer at the bottom. These are called as sediments. After sedimentation, Decantation is carried out. b. Decantation: Decantation is a method by which, the liquid is poured out , without disturbing the sediments. c. Filtration: Filtration is another method to separate insoluble solids from a liquid by passing the mixture through a filter. In laboratories, filter papers are used to separate chemicals from this mixture.3. SEPARATION OF SOLUBLE SOLIDS FROM LIQUIDS A. EVAPORATION: It is a process in which liquid changes into gas. Common salt is obtained from sea water by this method. B.CONDENSATION: It is a process in which a gas changes into liquid. Condensation is the reverse process of evaporation. 4. SEPARATION OF SOLUBLE LIQUIDS FROM ITS SOLUTION: Separating two immiscible liquids: The method of separating two immiscible liquids from their mixture is called Distillation Once the liquid boils, it starts evaporating. This property of liquids is used in distillation. Water, petrol and diesel are examples of liquids that can be distilled. 5. SEPARATION OF TWO IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS: In oil and water mixture, oil forms a separate layer above the water. The two can be separated by using a separating funnel. 6. SOLUTION:  We know that some substances are soluble in water and some do not.  Sugar and salt are soluble in water. Whereas, chalk powder and sawdust are insoluble.  For example, when salt is added to water it will dissolve completely with water.  The solution that dissolve is called solute (her salt is solute)  A solute and a solvent mixed together to form a solution. This salt water is a solution of salt in water.  In a solution, always the solute is present in a lesser amount and the solvent is present in a greater amount.  Water is capable of dissolving more substances than any other liquid. So, water is called as Universal solvent. 7. SOLUBILITY: The solubility if a substance is its ability to dissolve in a given solvent. 8. A saturated solution is a solution, in which no more solute can be dissolved.

it literally took me 40 minutes to write this all like plss

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