notes of civics chapters


Electoral politics is a form of politics in which the political process is conducted on the basis of elections that are contested by candidates. It is done to secure the mandate of the people and guarantee legitimacy for the decision making process adopted by the political institutions of the country. Electoral politics requires candidates to enter their names in the election contest and reach out to the voters through their proclaimed agendas and promises that they aim to fulfil if elected to positions of power. Thus, it is the cornerstone of representative democracy.







Government Order



An order issued by the Central or the State government. It is also called an Office Memorandum.







The Mandal Commission



The Second Backward Classes Commission was appointed by the Government of India in the year 1979.



Chairman of the Commission was B.P Mandal and hence, it was popular as the Mandal Commission.






27% reservation in government services for the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBCs).






Need for Political Institutions



The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are the institutions that take all the significant decisions.












Parliament is an assembly of the chosen representatives of people that exercise ultimate political authority on behalf of the people of a country.






At state level, it is called a Legislative Assembly.






It is the ultimate authority for making, annulling or changing the laws.






A Parliament controls the working of the government as the government is accountable to the Parliament.






Parliament has the right and control over the government’s money.






All discussions and debates regarding public issues and national policy take place in the Parliament.






Houses of Parliament






The Parliament has two houses- The Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the people).






A bill has to be passed by both the Houses before it finally becomes a law. If a difference arises between both the houses, then the decision is taken in a joint session of both the houses..






In monetary matters, the Lok Sabha has more powers. A money bill can be passed only by the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha has no say on a money bill.






The Council of Ministers is controlled by the Lok Sabha.






Political Executive and Permanent Executive



The one which is elected by the people for only a specific period of time is called the Political Executive . It signifies the government of a country.






Permanent Executive or the Civil Services . People working for the civil services are called the civil servants.






As the will of the people is the highest, the minister gets elected by the people and thus has to exercise it on behalf of the people’s demands.






The will of the people is supreme in a democracy and ministers are directly elected by the people, thus they are answerable to the people for every decision they take.






Prime Minister and Council of Ministers






It is the most important institution of the country.






The President appoints the Prime Minister by conducting the oath of office.






The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party that gains majority in the elections.






The Prime Minister is empowered to choose ministers.






Council of Ministers






The body that includes all the ministers is officially called the Council of Ministers. It comprise of both the senior and the junior ministers.






Cabinet Ministers: The top leaders of the ruling party/parties who handles the main ministries.






Ministers of state with independent charge: They are in charge of the small ministries and attend Cabinet meetings only if invited.






Ministers of State: They assist the Cabinet Ministers.






Chairs Cabinet meetings.






Takes the final decision in case of differences among various ministers on a particular issue.






Coordinates the working of different ministries.






All the ministers work under his supervision.






Can remove/appoint/transfer ministers.






Assigns work to ministers.






If the Prime Minister resigns/quits, the whole ministry quits.






The President



The President is the head of the State.






Powers of the President






All government activities take place in the President’s name.






Laws and major policy decisions are issued in the President’s name.






Appointment of the Chief Justice of India, Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts, Governor of States, Election Commissioners, etc. take place in the name of the President.






International treaties are made in the name of the President.






The President is also the Supreme Commander of the armed forces of the country.






The Judiciary



All the courts in the country are together called the judiciary.



 The judiciary of India consists of a Supreme Court for the whole nation, state High Courts, District Courts and Courts at the local level.




 The judiciary acts as the guardian of the Fundamental Rights of the citizens of India.

democratic rights

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life without rights
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Lazy da bro
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This means that the person shall be equally protected by the laws of the country discriminated against on the basis of their religion, sex or caste every person has access to all public places including playground, hotels ,shops across the street can not discriminate against anyone in matter of employment but they are exception to this that you will read about later the practice of untouchability has also been abolished
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How can you say ?democracy is a good form of government
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Actions can be held in many ways all democratic countries hold elections but most non democratic countries also hold some kind of Some kind of elections First everyone should be able to choose this means that everyone should have one vote and every vote should Have equal. Second that should be done something to choose from what is and carry days should be free to contest elections and should offer some real choice to the voters.
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