​Plants can also receive too much water and ultimately "drown". Paradoxically, even thought the roots of a plant maybe standing in water, its leaves maybe drying out.
a) Is standing water harmful for the plant?How?
b) How mangrove plant becomes a better adaptation w.r.t such conditions?

Dear student,
a) Standing water is harmful for the plants because in the standing water gaseous exchange process is stopped and root is not able to take oxygen. Different organism (algae, fungi, bacteria etc.) die in the standing water and decay producing sulfur compound due to which soil under standing water smells bad. So, the change in the ecosystem of the standing water due to which root starts rotting and therefore is harmful for plants.

b) Mangrove plants have adaptation for standing water. Root of the mangrove plant comes out above water for absorbing oxygen from air such roots are called pneumatophores. Pneumatophores have lenticels (pores in the roots for absorbing oxygen) which closes at times of high tide or when they are submerged for longer and thus saves mangrove plants from drawning. 


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