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Ans. Option 2: leads to ATP production

Chemiosmotic hypothesis explains how ATP is synthesised in chloroplast. Chemiosmosis requires a membrane, a proton pump, a proton gradient and ATP synthase.
Protons accumulate towards the inside of the thylakoid membrane; in the lumen. The proton gradient is broken down due to the movement of H+ from the lumen towards the stroma through the transmembrane channel of the F0 of ATPase.‚Äč Break down of proton gradient provides energy to induce conformational changes in the F1 particle of the ATP synthase. This makes ATP synthase synthesise molecules of ATP.


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