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PASSACE 1 (12 Marks) Read the following passages carefully:
l. Early automobiles were sometimes only 'horseles carriages' powered by gasoline or steam engines, Some of them were so noisy that cities often made laws forbidding their use because they frightened horses,
2. Many countries helped to develop the automobile. The internal-combustion engine was invented in Austria and France early leader in automobile manufacturing. But it was in the United States after 1900 that the automobile was improved most rapidly. As a large and growing country, the United States needed cars and trucks to provide transportation in places not served by trains.
3. Two brilliant ideas made possible the production of automobiles, An American inventor named Eli Whitney thought one of them, Which is known as •standardisaton of parts. In an effort to speed up production in his gun factory whitney decided that each part of a gun could be made by machines so that it would be exactly like all the others of its kind.
4. Another American, Henry Ford, developed the idea the assembly line. Before Ford introduced the assembly line, each car was built by hand. Such a process was, of course, very slow, As a result, automobiles were so expensive that only rich people could afford them, Ford proposed a system in which each worker would have only portion of the wheels. Another would place the wheels on the car. And still another would insert the bolts that held the wheels to the car. Each worker needed to learn only one or two routine tasks,
5. But the really important part of Fords idea to bring the work to the Worker. An automobile frame, which looks like a steel skeleton, was put on a moving platform When the car reached the end of the line, it was completely assembled, Oil, gasoline and water were addded and the car was ready to be driven away. With the increased production made possible by the assembly line, automobiles became much cheaper and more and more people were able to afford them,
6. Today, it can be said that wheels run America, four rubber tyres of the automobile move America through work and play.

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