Dear Student,
Given below are the answers to your questions.

a) The Phoenicians were people from the Semitic race, who never formed a state, but remained independent.
b) Their situation of not having a state and being independent, made them first of the world's greatest commercial powers.
c) Sidon and Tyre were their greatest cities.
d) The greatest of their colonies was Carthage in northern Africa, which was destined to dispute for the empire for the West with the Romans.
e) The modern alphabets that we use are developed from the forms of the letters which they taught to the Greeks. They also contributed to ship- building, navigation and many forms of manufacture.

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