Please give all the important name reactions of CBSE 12th class syllabus.
All the important name reactions are as follows:
1. Rosenmund Reaction: This reaction involves the reduction of acid halide to an aldehyde using hydrogen gas over palladium-on-carbon poisoned with barium sulphate.
2. Cannizzaro Reaction: It involves the base induces disproportionation of an aldehyde.
3. Hofmann bromamide Reaction: The reaction of primary amide to primary amine with one less carbon atom.
4. Wolf kishner Reaction: Reduction of ketone or aldehyde to an alkane in presence of hydrazine.
5. Kolbe Schmitt Reaction: The chemical reaction of sodium salt of phenol with carbon dioxide under pressure (100 atm), then heating the product with sulfuric acid gives salicylic acid as final product.
6. Reimer-Tiemann Reaction: This reaction is the ortho formylation of phenols in presence of base and chloroform.
7. Tollens reagent test: It is termed as silver mirror test. Tollens reagent is . Tollen reagent are used to oxidise the aldehydes only not for ketones.
these Ag molecules give silver mirror at the bottom of test tube.
8. Aldol condensation: In this reaction enol or enolate ions react with carbonyl compounds to form -hydroxyaldehyde or -hydroxyketone followed by enone compound.
9. Trans esterification: It is the process of exchanging of the organic group R of an ester with the organic group R' of an alcohol catalysed by an acid or a base.
10. Sandmeyer reaction: It is used to synthesize aryl halide from aryl benzonium salt.
11. Carbylamine reaction: This is the chemical test for detection of primary amine. in this amine is heated with alcoholic potassium hydroxide and chloroform.
12. Isocyanide test: This is also termed as carbylamine reaction. this is discussed earlier.
13. Friedel-Crafts reaction: It is of two types:
(A) Friedel craft alkylation: Alkylation of aromatic ring with an alkyl halide in presence of strong lewis acid catalyst.
(B) Friedel-Craft acylation: Acylation of aromatic ring with an acyl halide in presence of strong lewis acid catalyst.
14. Fehling Test: This test is shown by aldehydes only not ketones. Fehling solution is a mixture of Fehling solution A and Fehling solution B. Fehling solution A is blue aqueous solution of copper sulphate and Fehling solution B is clear solution of aqueous potassium sodium tartrate and a strong alkali ( KOH). When aldehydes react with fehling solution, they give a red precipitate.
15. Gabriel synthesis: The sodium or potassium salt of pthalimide is N-alkylated with a primary alkyl halide to give the corresponding N-alkylphthalimide.