please write fast advantage and disadvantage of manure and fertillizers?
Advantages of manure -
1. Manure contains large amounts of organic matter.
2. It also supplies small quantities of nutrients to the soil.
3. It helps in increasing soil fertility.
4. It helps in enriching the soil with nutrients.
5. It helps in improving the soil structure.
Advantages of fertilisers
1. It supplies nitrogen, phosphorous and pottasium.
2. It ensures good vegetative growth, giving rise to healthy plants.
3. It gives higher yield in high-cost farming.
4. It has many short-term benefits.
5. They ensure that the food is toxic-free.
Disadvantages of manure
1. It is relatively low in nutrients than fertilisers.
2. It may be too high in weed seeds.
3. It may be too high in nitrogen.
4. It may endanger health through the spread of E. Coli.
5. There may be zinc deficiency in manure.
Disadvantages of fertilisers
1. They have to be applied carefully in terms of proper dose, time and observing pre- and post-application precautions for their complete utilisation.
2. Continuous use of fertilisers in an area can destroy soil fertility.
3. Higher cost
4. Composition is more complex and variable than manure
5. More labor is needed.
Chemical fertilizers have many advantages over the manures as given under:
1. Chemical fertilizers have smaller bulk and hence are easy to store, transport and apply.
2. Chemical fertilizers are nutrient specific. Thus for supplying a particular nutrient we can select some specific chemical fertilizer. For example, super phosphate is used in case the soil is deficient in phosphorus.
3. Chemical fertilizers are soluble in water and hence are easily absorbed by plants.
Disadvantages of Fertilizers over Manures
Chemical fertilizers when used in proper amounts promote the growth of plants and boost the crop yield. However, the excessive use of fertilizers has many serious disadvantages. Some of these are discussed below:
- The excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers concentrates nitrates in the soil and water. Nitrate rich water is unfit for drinking, and is rather difficult to treat. When nitrate rich water is carried off into surface water bodies such as ponds, rivers and lakes it proliferates (accelerates) the growth of alga. These algae consume dissolved oxygen from water and thus deplete the water of its oxygen content leading to the death of useful aquatic life such as fish. Such an increase in the growth of algae in the lakes, ponds etc. resulting in the reduction of oxygen content in water is called EUTROPHICATION. Eutrophication thus destroys the life supporting environment in lakes and ponds.
- Excessive use of fertilizers over a long period may affect the alkalinity or acidity of the soil and may adversely affect the crop production.
advantages and disadvantages of covered manure storage
- No extra water from precipitation needs to be hauled to the field.
- A higher initial cost is incurred because of the roof or tank top, and the toxic and explosive gas hazard is increased by the cover.
- The workload is concentrated during planting and harvesting.
Hope it helped.. :D
Livestock operations produce more than just meat and jobs. They also produce nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in animal manure. These nutrients can be important by-products when effectively managed and utilized for field crop production. By properly recycling these nutrients, a producer can reduce an operation's reliance on energy-intensive commercial fertilizer for crop production. Manure that is properly managed and effectively applied presents little hazard to surface water or ground water and improves soil tilth. Manure is an asset rather than a liability for Iowa.
Most Iowa farmers view manure as a waste and feel that it is something that needs to be "gotten rid of'. Instead of viewing manure as a waste, livestock producers and grain farmers need to view manure as a product that can be substituted for commercial fertilizer; an economic resource. In order to be fully utilized as a fertilizer, manure needs to be exported from those who have excess and imported by those who can properly utilize it. Unfortunately, the one-on-one technical expertise for proper manure management is significantly lacking in Iowa today. A manure brokering service can provide the one-on-one assistance to better manage manure.
Agren has recently received a grant through the Iowa Department of Economic Development to start a "Value-added" manure brokering service. This service is being designed to help those livestock producers who have excess manure transport the manure to those grain farmers who can utilize the manure as fertilizer. In most cases, livestock producers are willing to give their manure away if the grain farmer is willing to pay the cost of hauling. Agren will broker manure for those livestock producers who have excess manure (exporters) by finding grain farmers who can utilize the manure (importers). The grain farmer will be assessed hauling and application charges, plus a brokering fee.
This arrangement is a win-win situation for the importer, exporter, and the environment. The livestock producer benefits by having empty storage pits, the grain farmer benefits by receiving nutrient inputs at a lower cost, and the environment benefits from the responsible application of nutrients.
Progress to Date
In 1996, Tom Buman started a small pilot manure-brokering project while employed by USDA's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Due to a small operating budget and personnel shortage, only a limited program could be developed. In organizing the model for this early manure-brokering program, Buman researched the existence and success of other manure brokering programs throughout the United States. There were some limited manure brokering services developed but none were to the extent needed. The coordinators of the programs considered their manure brokering programs to be less successful than they had hoped.
In initiating the pilot manure-brokering project, Buman conducted a survey of all Carroll County landowners and farm operators to determine the level of interest in a manure-brokering program. Of the 68 people who responded to the questionnaire, 51 farmers said they would be interested in receiving, or importing manure, while 17 livestock producers said they would be willing to provide, or export manure. The names and addresses of the importers and exporters were published in a brochure, and shared with all interested parties. It was left up to the individuals to contact one another.
Although there was excellent response to the initial survey, we have no knowledge of any exchange of manure. It is our feeling that the lack of action on either the importer's or the exporter's side was due to the lack of coordination and technical assistance. Passive approaches to manure brokering have been largely unsuccessful.
To fully implement a successful manure-brokering program, we have determined that the program coordinator must take an active role in bringing together exporters and importers. In addition, the coordinator must provide the technical assistance in order to insure proper nutrient crediting and proper manure application methods.
In Iowa, during 1996, there were 24,000,000 hogs marketed (Iowa Pork Producers Association) and 2,400,000 cattle fed (Iowa Cattlemen's Association). Iowa ranks first in the nation in hog production and fifth in cattle production. (Iowa's Rank in Agriculture)
Western Iowa is known for its high concentration of cattle, hogs and cropland. Carroll County is a leader in Iowa's livestock industry, marketing the third highest number of cattle and the sixth highest number of hogs in the state. This concentration of livestock indicates that a substantial source of manure exists.
The Carroll Soil and Water Conservation District has determined that the manure produced yearly in Carroll County is estimated to be worth $5.7 million, based on fertility value. However, it has also been estimated that 75-80% of this manure is mismanaged. This represents an enormous loss of potential profits and damage to the environment. Reasons that farmers do not properly utilize manure include the following:
- The nutrient content of manure is too inconsistent.
- Application methods are too inaccurate to properly credit manure.
- Using manure is too much bother. Farmers do not feel it is worth their time.
- Individuals do not trust the fertility value of manure. They are concerned that their
- crop yields will suffer.
- Distribution of manure is not equal. Some individuals have more manure than they can effectively use, while others could benefit by importing manure.
- There is a lack of agronomic expertise in the agricultural community to make recommendations to those producers who want to use manure to replace commercial fertilizer.