Pls explain IDR , GDR and ADR in business?

Dear student,

Indian Depository Receipt- IDR is a financial instrument. It is issued  by domestic depository to the Indian citizens against the shares of foreign company. IDR is denominated in Indian rupees. It helps issuing company, i.e. foreign companies to raise capital from Indian securities market.

Global Depository Receipt- GDR is issued by a country's bank against the shares of a foreign company which is not traded in their domestic stock exchange. GDR is issued in more than one country. It is a negotiable instrument.

American Depository Receipt- ADR is a negotiable instrument. It is issued by American Bank against the shares of foreign company that are traded in U.S. Stock market. ADR is denominated in US Dollars. 


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Recently SEBI has issued guidelines for foreign companies who wish to raise capital in India by issuing Indian Depository Receipts. Thus, IDRs will be transferable securities to be listed on Indian stock exchanges in the form of depository receipts. Such IDRs will be created by a Domestic Depositories in India against the underlying equity shares of the issuing company which is incorporated outside India.

Though IDRs will be freely priced., yet in the prospectus the issue price has to be justified. Each IDR will represent a certain number of shares of the foreign company. The shares will not be listed in India , but have to be listed in the home country.
The IDRs will allow the Indian investors to tap the opportunities in stocks of foreign companies and that too without the risk of investing directly which may not be too friendly. Thus, now Indian investors will have easy access to international capital market.
Normally, the DR are allowed to be exchanged for the underlying shares held by the custodian and sold in the home country and vice-versa. However, in the case of IDRs, automatic fungibility is not permitted.
SEBI has issued guidelines for issuance of IDRs in April, 2006, Some of the major norms for issuance of IDRs are as follows. SEBI has set Rs 50 crore as the lower limit for the IDRs to be issued by the Indian companies. Moreover, the minimum investment required in the IDR issue by the investors has been fixed at Rs two lakh. Non-Resident Indians and Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) have not been allowed to purchase or possess IDRs without special permission from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Also, the IDR issuing company should have good track record with respect to securities market regulations and companies not meeting the criteria will not be allowed to raise funds from the domestic market If the IDR issuer fails to receive minimum 90 per cent subscription on the date of closure of the issue, or the subscription level later falls below 90 per cent due to cheques not being honoured or withdrawal of applications, the company has to refund the entire subscription amount received, SEBI said. Also, in case of delay beyond eight days after the company becomes liable to pay the amount, the company shall pay interest at the rate of 15 per cent per annum for the period of delay.
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American Depository Receipts popularly known as ADRs were introduced in the American market in 1927. ADR is a security issued by a company outside the U.S. which physically remains in the country of issue, usually in the custody of a bank, but is traded on U.S. stock exchanges. In other words, ADR is a stock that trades in the United States but represents a specified number of shares in a foreign corporation.
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