Plz give me info on any 4 adaptions in animals or any 4 adaptations in plants............. Plz make it soon..... I'll give u thumbs up also so plzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
Adaptation in plants:
1. The leaves of the aquatic plants float on the surface of water to absorb as much sunlight as they can for photosynthesis. The stems and leaves contain air sacs inside the tissues which help them to reduce weight and float on the surface.
2. The desert plants are covered with waxy cuticle layer to avoid excess loss of water through transpiration due to excess heat. The leaves of desert plants like cactus have modified into spines to reduce water loss.
3. In plants, seed dormancy is a type of adaptation in which seeds have the capability to germinate when the environment is favorable. In extreme cold countries the seeds remain dormant till the summer so that the young plants may not be killed by freezing. In deserts, seeds wait till rainy season to germinate. Seed dormancy also helps in storage and transport of food crops which in turn helps to maintain commercial and economic values.
Adaptation in Animals:
Monkeys and Apes – They have long arms to use the canopies for changing places. In this way they can avoid the surface predators.
Poison arrow Frog – It is deadly poisonous frog with is very brightly colored to warn the predators to leave them alone.
Parakeets and other birds – As there is no sufficient place to fly in a rainforest the birds residing there have wings of specific shape that help them to fly easily along the trees and plants in the forest.
Insects – Insects are the largest group of organisms found in tropical rain forest. Most of them have adapted various types of camouflaging techniques to hide themselves from the oredators.
Three toed Sloth – Sloth has a very slow speed and they grow some type of algae on their body in such manner that their predators fail to find them out.
Toucan – Toucan is a type of bird that has bills specialized to eat nuts and fruits and claws that help it to sit on trees.
Butterfly – Butterflies of rainforests are very bright in colour which helps them to hide themselves easily on flowers and fruits.
Rattle Snake – It is a type of snake that makes sound while moving. This is to warn other animals that it is poisonous.
Fish are poikilothermic organisms, or in simpler terms, cold-blooded animals, which means that the lower the temperature of their surroundings is, the harder it is for them to maintain their metabolic functions. Furthermore, as temperatures go lower, ice crystals can form in the organisms cells and thus the animal might suffer irreversible damage and ultimately, death. However, arctic fish—while lacking the luxury of generating their own body heat like seals and other marine mammals that live in the same freezing waters—seem to thrive; the way in which they manage this has puzzled scientists for a long time.
But in recent years, an antifreeze protein has been discovered in their blood that prevents ice crystals forming. How this protein works, however, was discovered three years ago in a research conducted by Volkswagen (yes, the car manufacturer). The protein prevents any ice forming on the molecules in its vicinity, thus allowing the cells to continue with their life cycle; this is achieved by the fact that water molecules, which normally exhibit a dance-like movement, are slowed down by the protein, which hinders the forming and breaking of bonds that permits the creation of ice. A similar protein has been found in several species of beetles that live at high altitudes or in near-Arctic regions.9Freezing To Survive
Arctic fish avoid freezing, but other animals have been designed to freeze solid as a measure of surviving the cold season. Paradoxical as this may sound, several species of frogs and turtles practically freeze over during the winter—one could actually break a window by throwing a frozen—but live—frog against it. They then miraculously thaw back to life during the spring. This outstanding way of surviving winter is explained by the fact that the urea and glucose (which comes from the transformation of liver glycogen that occurs before freezing) limit the amount of ice and reduce the osmotic shrinkage of cells, which would otherwise lead to their death. In other words, sugar allows the frog to survive. There is, however, a limit to their resistance: although they appear rock solid when frozen, the survival of these animals may be compromised if more than 65 per cent of the water in their bodies freezes.8Chemical Heat
We are still in the realm of cold-blooded animals. Most of us have learned in science class that the smaller an object is, the more difficult it is for it to maintain heat. Moreover, we know that cold-blooded animals are generally quite lethargic and only capable of short bursts of energy. However, insects, although poikilothermic, are very active and they achieve this by generating body heat through chemical and mechanical means, usually from quick and constant muscular movement. We may draw a parallel between insects and heating a diesel engine in the winter before starting it. They do this not only for creating the energy required for maintained flight, but also for protection against the cold of winter, as bees gather around and shiver in order to avoid freezing.7Encystment
Protozoa, bacteria and spores, as well some nematodes, employ encystment (which is entering a state of suspended animation, separated by the outside world by a solid cell wall) to endure hostile conditions for long periods of time. Very long periods of time. Actually, this is why encystment is one of the most outstanding achievements of the natural world: scientists have managed to bring back to life bacteria and spores millions of years old—the oldest of which being approximately 250 million years old (yes, older than the dinosaurs). Encystment might very well be the only way in which Jurassic Park may become reality. On the other hand, imagine if scientists bring back to life a virus that the human body has no protection against6Natural Radiators
Keeping cool becomes a challenge in tropical areas, especially when animals are larger or more energetic. Natural radiators are an efficient way of lowering the bodys temperature: for instance, the ears of the elephant and the rabbit are full of blood vessels, helping the animal cool its body in the heat. Rabbits living in Arctic areas have smaller ears, and so did the woolly mammoths, in order to protect themselves from the cold. Radiators were encountered in the prehistoric world as well, in animals such as the Dimetrodon of the Permian, or, according to some scientists, dinosaurs belonging to the Stegosaurus family, the plates of which would have been highly vascularized in order to permit heat exchange.5Megathermy
Being too big might be a disadvantage to creatures living in tropical areas, as they constantly need to lower their body temperatures. In cold waters, however, large poikilothermic creatures can thrive and be quite energetic. The requirement for this is size: megathermy is the ability to generate heat due to sheer body mass, a phenomenon encountered in the leatherback sea turtle (the largest turtle in the world) or in large sharks such as the great white or mako shark. This increase in body temperature allows these creatures to be quite energetic in cold waters—actually, the leatherback sea turtle is the fastest reptile on Earth, capable of speeds of up to 20 mph in short bursts.4Changing Blood Properties
In order to operate in extreme environments, some animals have evolved different types of blood composition: the sperm whale and the bar-headed goose of Asia. Both these species have an uncanny ability to store a lot more oxygen in their blood cells than other animals. They need this for separate reasons, though: the sperm whale needs to hold its breath for a long time due to the fact that it submerges to great depths in search for food, while bar-headed geese need to maintain an energetic flight over the Himalayan mountain range, at those altitudes the air is quite poor in oxygen.3Breathing Adaptations
In tropical and equatorial areas, the alternation of seasons can bring disaster to many animals. The rainy season may mean frequent floods in which many land animals lose their lives, while the dry season means a lack of water, which, naturally, is bad for everyone. Among the animals for which nature has gone to great lengths to ensure their survival are the fish that breathe air. Many of us have heard of the lungfish, Dipnoi, which create a mucus sack to protect themselves through the drought, but some species of catfish and eel not only breathe air, but also travel on land between pools. These fish manage to take oxygen from the air not through lungs or gills, but through the use of a specialized area of their intestines.2Living in Hell
Since their discovery, hydrothermal vents have overthrown many theories scientists had regarding deep sea life. The temperature of the waters surrounding these vents exceed the boiling point, but the sheer pressure of those depths prevents any bubbles from appearing. Hydrogen sulphide constantly jets out of the vents, a highly toxic substance for most life forms. However, these hellish vents are often surrounded by colonies of various wildlife, most of which obviously thrive in a toxic, sunless world. These creatures have managed to cope with the lack of sunlight (which we know is a vital part for most life, as it triggers the synthesis of vitamin D) and with the outstanding temperatures. As many deep sea vents dwellers are quite primitive from an evolutionary viewpoint, scientists now try to discover whether these vents were the actual environments where life first occurred roughly 3.5 billion years ago.1Daring Colonization
I have to admit that the last entry in this list still lacks a proper scientific explanation: a species of parrot native to Nicaragua (Aratinga holochlora) nests in the Masaya volcano crater. The difficult to explain part is that the crater constantly lets out sulfurous fumes that are quite lethal. How these parrots manage to nest in an environment that would kill humans and other animals in minutes is still a mystery to scientists, and this proves that Mother Nature, in her determination to conquer, does not let herself be intimidated too easily. Whereas the fauna living near deep sea vents had millions of years of evolution to adapt to living there, the green parrots of the Masaya volcano crater have adopted this life style only recently, evolutionary speaking. By studying such daring species, man can achieve a better understanding of how this marvel of the universe, evolution, works, just as Charles Darwin observed the finches of the Galapagos in his voyage aboard the Beagle.
ADAPTATION ON ANIMALS
- Adaptation:Two rows of long eyelashes.Function: Protect against blowing sand and the sun
- Adaptation:Fat stored in hump(s).Function: Help it to survive long periods without food and water.
- Adaptation:Thick leathery patches on knees.Function: Protect it from getting burn when it kneels on the hot desert sand.
- Adaptation:Broad, flat, leathery pads at the bottom of their hooves.Function: Pads spread out when the camel places its feet on the ground thus creating a "snowshoe effect" and preventing the camel from sinking into the sand.
- Adaptation:Thick fur and underwool.Function: Provide warmth during cold desert nights and insulation against daytime heat.
- Adaptation:Long strong legs.Function: Help carry heavy loads over long distances and keep its body further away from the hot sand.
Ephemeral Leaves - leaves lasting a markedly brief time, sometimes only a day. Found in very dry climates that have a very short rainy season, like the desert.
Xerophyte - A plant adapted to living in a dry arid habitat; a desert plant.
Mesophyte - A land plant that grows in an environment having a moderate amount of moisture.
Hydrophyte - A plant adapted to grow in water.
Pleating - Edges of a plant arranged in parallel folds (ex. Ocotillo cactus).
Pubescence - A covering of short hairs on certain plants; usually found on desert plants.
Secondary Metabolites - compounds made by plants as a form of defense against predators. There are six classes - alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and phenolics.
Convergent Evolution - The adaptive evolution of superficially similar structures, such ascactiandeuphorbs(Africa), in unrelated species subjected to similar environments.
A cactus (left) and twoEuphorbiaspecies from Africa (center and right)
Adaptations develop over time and generations as a response to the ever changing environment. They allow an organism to reduce competition for space and nutrients, reduce predation and increase reproduction. There are however, several factors that can limit these adaptations: availability of water, light, predation and temperature. Because we live in a desert, this lab will focus mainly on the adaptations to a xeric environment.
Desert plants have adapted to the extremes of heat and aridity by using both physical and behavioral mechanisms, much like desert animals.Plants that have adapted by altering their physical structure are called xerophytes. Xerophytes, such as cacti, usually have special means of storing and conserving water. They often have few or no leaves, thus reducing the amount of transpiration.Phreatophytes are plants that have adapted to arid environments by growing extremely long roots, allowing them to acquire moisture at or near the water table. The term, phreatophyte, literally means water-loving plant.Other desert plants, using behavioral adaptations, have developed a lifestyle patterned after the seasons of greatest moisture and/or coolest temperatures. These types of plants are usually (and inaccurately) referred to as perennials, plants that live for several years, and annuals, plants that live for only a season.Desert perennials often survive by remaining dormant during dry periods of the year, then springing to life when water becomes available.Most annual desert plants germinate only after heavy seasonal rain, then complete their reproductive cycle very quickly. They bloom prodigiously for a few weeks in the spring, accounting for most of the annual wildflower explosions of the deserts. Their heat- and drought-resistant seeds remain dormant in the soil until the next year's annual rains.Xerophytes
The physical and behavioral adaptations of desert plants are as numerous and innovative as those of desert animals. Xerophytes, plants that have altered their physical structure to survive extreme heat and lack of water, are the largest group of such plants living in the deserts of the American Southwest.Cacti are among the most drought-resistant plants on the planet due to their absence of leaves, shallow root systems, ability to store water in their stems, spines for shade and waxy skin to seal in moisture. Cacti originated in the West Indies and migrated to many parts of the New World, populating the deserts of the Southwest with hundreds of varieties.
Barrel CactusOpuntiaCactus Saguaro Cactus Cholla CactusCacti depend on chlorophyll in the outer tissue of their skin and stems to conduct photosynthesis for the manufacture of food. Spines protect the plant from animals, shade the plant from the sun and also collect moisture. Extensive shallow root systems are usually radial, allowing for the quick acquisition of large quantities of water when it rains. Because they store water in the core of both stems and roots, cacti are well-suited to dry climates and can survive years of drought on the water collected from a single rainfall.Many other desert trees and shrubs have also adapted by eliminating leaves -- replacing them with thorns, not spines -- or by greatly reducing leaf size to eliminate transpiration. Such plants also usually have smooth, green bark on stems and trunks serving to both produce food and seal in moisture, such as thePaloverde. Some plants produce ephemeral leaves during the brief rainy season to help increase transpiration and photosynthesis. Sometimes these leaves only last for one day.Phreatophytes
Phreatophytes, like theMesquite Tree, have adapted to desert conditions by developing extremely long root systems to draw water from deep underground water tables. The mesquite's roots are considered the longest of any desert plant and have been recorded as long as 80 feet.
TheCreosote Bushis one of the most successful of all desert species because it utilizes a combination of many adaptations. Instead of thorns, it relies for protection on a smell and taste wildlife find unpleasant (secondary metabolites). It has tiny leaves that close their stomata (pores) during the day to avoid water loss and open them at night to absorb moisture. Creosote has an extensive double root system -- both radial and deep -- to accumulate water from both surface and underground water.Perennials
Some perennials, such as theOcotillo, survive by becoming dormant during dry periods, then springing to life when water becomes available. After rain falls, the Ocotillo quickly grows a new suit of leaves to photosynthesize food. Flowers bloom within a few weeks, and when seeds become ripe and fall, the Ocotillo loses its leaves again and re-enters dormancy. This process may occur as many as five times a year. The Ocotillo also has a waxy coating on stems which serves to seal in moisture during periods of dormancy.Annuals (Ephemerals)
The term "annuals" implies blooming yearly, but since this is not always the case, desert annuals are more accurately referred to as "ephemerals." Many of them can complete an entire life cycle in a matter of months, some in just weeks.Contrary to the idea that deserts are uniformly hot, dry and homogeneous in their lack of plant life, they are actually biologically diverse and comprise a multitude of micro-climates changing from year to year. Each season's unique precipitation pattern falls on a huge variety of mini-environments. And each year in each of these tiny eco-niches, a different medley of plants bloom as different species thrive.Desert plants must act quickly when heat, moisture and light inform them it's time to bloom. Ephemerals are the sprinters of the plant world, sending flower stalks jetting out in a few days. The peak of this bloom may last for just days or many weeks, depending on the weather and difference in elevation. The higher one goes, the later blooms come. Different varieties of plants will be in bloom from day to day, and even hour to hour, since some open early and others later in the day.
Ephemerals such as theDesert Paintbrushusually germinate in the spring following winter rains. They grow quickly, flower and produce seeds before dying and scattering their progeny to the desert floor. These seeds are extremely hardy. They remain dormant, resisting drought and heat, until the following spring -- sometimes 2 or 3 springs -- when they repeat the cycle, germinating after winter rains to bloom again in the spring. There are hundreds of species of ephemerals that thrive in the deserts of the American Southwest.
One plant adaptation important to the survival and early dominance of flowering plants is the production of secondary plant metabolites. These bad tasting and sometimes toxic compounds have been one of plants most powerful means of defense. These compounds can be divided into six easily identifiable classes based on plant material and extract. The table below lists each compound and how they affect vertebrates in general.SECONDARY COMPOUNDHUMAN PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTSAlkaloidsAntibacterial, stimulants,sedatives, vaso-constrictors dilators, diuretics,expectorants, antidiarrhealCyanogenic glycosidescough suppressants, treatmentof digestive disordersSaponinsexpectorant, diuretic; treatmentof skin diseases, anemia diabetesCardiac glycosidesRegulation of heart activityTanninsAstringent used in treatingcuts burns, antidiarrhealSimple phenolicsAntihelmenthics, antisepticsanalgesics, diuretics