Q.3.(a) Write the locations of Untranslated regions [UTR] in mRNA and state its function.

Dear student,

UTR (Untranslated region) is found on the 5'side (5'UTR or leader sequence) and 3' side (3' UTR or trailer sequence). 
Functions of 3' UTR
The 3'-UTR often contains regulatory regions and they can influence gene expression after transcription.
These include polyadenylation, translation efficiency, localization and stability of the mRNA.
It contains binding sites for regulatory proteins and miRNAs. It has also silencer regions which can inhibit mRNA expression by binding of the repressor. 
It contains AU rich elements (AREs). Proteins can bind to them affecting stability, decay, and initiation of the transcript.
It contains AAUAA sequence which helps in the formation of poly A tail to the end of the mRNA transcript. Poly A tails have an important role in regulation, stability, and export of the transcript.
It also contains sequences that attract proteins which associate mRNAs with the cytoskeleton. This helps in localization and export.

Functions of 5'UTR
They are very important for the regulation of translation of a transcript through different mechanisms of regulation in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses.


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