Q1.'Census of India provides statistical information on various aspects of demographic changes in India’ Explain.

Q2. Describe the questionnaire method of collecting primary data. What precautions must be taken while preparing a questionnaire.

Q3.. Explain educational development of Indi a since Independent.

Solution 1

The Census of India is responsible for the collection of data related to different demographic characteristics. In this regard the data is collected for characteristics such as birth rate, death rate, size of the population and composition of population, fertility rate, mortality rate, etc. It also includes data as on the state of literacy of the country, the sex composition and various other demographic indicators. To put in different words, the information on all population related aspects are collected by the investigators appointed by the government. They collect this information from each and every household of the country. In India, this exercise is carried out every 10 years.

Solution 2

The questionnaire method is that method of collecting primary data in which the investigator prepares a questionnaire or schedule that comprises of a list of relevant questions. The respondents answer these questions and the answers are then recorded in the schedules. Such a method of collecting primary data proves helpful in cases where the investigator needs to collect reliable data and the area to be covered is very large.

For understanding the precautions that must be taken while preparing a questionnaire, you can refer to the characteristics of a good questionnaire which are covered in our study material. This you can find in Statistics for economics- Collection of Data (Lesson 2) of our study material.
Solution 3

The following points highlight the educational development in India since independence.

i. Since independence, there has been tremendous improvement in the literacy levels of India. As per the Census of India 2011, the literacy rate for males was 82.14% while that for females was 65.46%.

ii. Since the period 1952 to 2002, there has been an increase in the education expenditure by the government from 7.92% to 13.17%. As percentage of GDP, the education expenditure has increased from 0.64% to 4.02% during the same period.

iii. Also, since1950-51, there has been a commendable growth in the number of primary and middle schools in India. The number of schools has increased from 2.23 lakh in 1950-51 to 12.83 lakh in 2005-06. Similarly, the enrollment of students upto 8th standard in primary schools has also increased from 19.15 lakh to 1770 lakh.

iv. Major steps have also been taken by the government for improving the education at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels in India. These include, vocationalisation of education, formation of KVS, NCERT, KGBV, IGNOU, etc.

The topic of educational growth in India has been extensively and explicitly covered in our study material. For better understanding of the topic, you can refer to 'Indian Economic Development- Human Capital Formation in India (Lesson 5)' of our study material.

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