Q3. Differentiate between peptization and coagulation.
peptization is the process responsible for the formation of stable dispersion of colloidal particles in water. This is particularly important in colloid chemistry or for precipitation reactions in an aqueous solution. When colloidal particles bear a same sign electric charge, they mutually repel each others and cannot aggregate together. Freshly precipitated aluminium or iron hydroxide is extremely difficult to filter because the very fine colloidal particles directly pass through a paper filter. To facilitate the filtration, the colloidal suspension must be first flocculated by adding a concentrated solution of salt to the system. Multivalent cations are more efficient flocculants than monovalent cations: AlCl3 > CaCl2 > NaCl. The electrical charges present at the surface of the particles are so "neutralised" and disappear. More correctly speaking, the electrical double layer existing at the surface of the particles is compressed by the added electrolyte and collapses at high ionic strength. The electrical repulsion no longer hinders the aggregation of particles and they can then coalesce to form a flocculent precipitate that is easy to filter. If the precipitate is washed with an excessive volume of deionised water, the electrical double layer present at the surface of the particles expands again and the electrical repulsion reappears: the precipitate peptizes and the particles pass again through the filter.
Coagulation is a complex process by which blood forms clots. It is an important part of hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, wherein a damaged blood vessel wall is covered by a platelet and fibrin-containing clot to stop bleeding and begin repair of the damaged vessel. Disorders of coagulation can lead to an increased risk of bleeding (hemorrhage) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis).