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Q.  Write the five factors which influence the climate of India. Explain each factor briefly.

The factors which influence the climate of India are 

1. Locational and latitudinal extent. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country. The mainland of India extends from 8 degree North to 37 degree North. the areas which lie south of the Equator are nearer to the Equator and receives high temperature all the year round. The northern parts fall in the warm temperate zone.The temperature here is low especially in winter. The coastal regions which are surrounded by seas receive moderate climate.

2. Distance from the sea. Areas nearer to the sea, the coastal regions receive moderate climate whereas the interiors are deprived of the moderate influence of the sea and experience either extreme or continental climate.

3. The Northern Mountain ranges. India is separated from the rest of India by the mighty Himalayas. The Himalayas protect India from the cold and dry winds of Central Asia during winter. It also acts as a great physical barrier for rain bearing the south west monsoon winds to cross northern India.

4. Physiography :It has a great impact on the major elements of climate such as temperature, pressure, direction of winds, amount of rainfall etc. 

5. Monsoon winds: It is the most dominating factor of climate in India. It gives  India a monsoon type of climate. The reversal of monsoon winds brings change in the seasons. The summer season brings rains which changes the climate to rainy. The south west summer monsoons from the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal causes heavy rain whereas the North eastern winter monsoon travelling from land to sea does not bring much rain except the Coromondal coast after receiving moisture from bay of Bengal.

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