state the conditions for plasmolysis to occur?

Plasmolysis is the process of shirinking of cytoplasm of plant cells. Plasmolysis occurs when plant cells are kept in a hypertonic solution such as sugar solution or salt solution. Plasmolysis occur as a result of exosmosis as water moves out of the cytoplasm when placed in a hypertonic solution.

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If a plant cell is placed in a more concentrated salt (hypertonic) solution, the plant cell loses water and hence turgor pressure, making the plant cell flaccid. Plants with cells in this condition wilt. Further water loss causes plasmolysis: pressure decreases to the point where the protoplasm of the cell peels away from the cell wall, leaving gaps between the cell wall and the membrane. Eventually cytorrhysis – the complete collapse of the cell wall – can occur. There is no mechanism in plants to prevent excess water loss in the same way as excess water gain, but plasmolysis can be reversed if the cell is placed in a weaker solution (hypotonic solution). The equivalent process in animal cells is called crenation. The liquid content of the cell leaks out due to diffusion. The cell collapse and cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall

Plasmolysis only occurs in extreme conditions and rarely happens in nature. It is induced in the laboratory by immersing cells in strong saline or sugar solutions to cause exosmosis, often using Elodea plants or onion epidermal cells, which have coloured cell sap so that the process is clearly visible.

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