Tell briefly about 'Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ)' and 'EL Nino'

Dear Student,

The following points may help you:

a. Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)  which is 
the equatorial trough (lower pressure area) impacts India's climate to a great extent.
b. It is an area where north Eas
t and south east trade winds come together and impacts the rainfall .
c. Shifting of ITCZ results in advancing and retreating monsoon in the country.
d.  In advancing monsoon, the trough and its axis keeps on moving northward or southward, which
determines the spatial distribution of rainfall, for example, When the axis of the monsoon trough lies over
the plains, rainfall is good in these parts.
e. While for retreating monsoon,with the movement of the sun towards the south, the monsoon trough becomes weaker and we experience withdrawal of monsoon.   
f. When ITCZ and jet streams move southwards towards tropic of Capricorn it leads to dry monsoon in India.

EL Nino

a. EL Nino is the event where the waters of the tropical central and Eastern pacific become warmer than normal. This has the effect of increasing rainfall in this general area, but over the Western Pacific air pressures tend to increase and suppress rainfall thus it is typically drier than average in that region.
b. El Nino in India makes Monsoon weak, and kills it.
c.  El Nino weakens the trade winds, may even lead to reverse wind direction that allows the warmer water from the western Pacific to flow toward the east. 
d. Shift of warm waters from eastern south Indian ocean may impact the rainfall in South east Asia. 



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