The three dimensional attack on poverty adopted by the government has not succeeded in poverty alleviation in India. Comment.
In order to alleviate poverty, government has adopted the following three dimensional approaches:
(i) Trickle-down Approach- This approach is based on the expectation that the positive effects of economic growth will be trickled down or benefit all sections of the society and also the poor people.
(ii) Poverty Alleviation Approach- This approach aimed at the creation of income-earning assets and employment generation opportunities.
(iii) Providing Basic Amenities- This approach aimed at providing the basic amenities like proper medical and health care facilities, better education, proper sanitation etc. to the poor people. These basic amenities positively affect health, productivity, income-earning opportunities and, thereby, alleviate poverty.
A thorough analysis of the three dimensional approach yield the following conclusions:
- Although there has been a reduction in the percentage of absolute poor in some of the states but still the poor people lack basic amenities, literacy, and nourishment.
- Secondly, there has not been significant change in the ownership of income-earning assets and productive resources.
- Thirdly, land reforms do not have high successful records (except West Bengal and Kerala) that further added to the inequality of income from land.
- Fourthly, lack of capital and availability of easy credit, lack of modern technology and poor access to information and marketing became the major bottlenecks for the small productive houses like cottage industries and other small scale industries.
- Fifthly, improper implementation of poverty alleviation programmes by ill-motivated and inadequately trained bureaucrats further worsened the situation.
- Sixthly, corruption along with the inclination towards interest of elites led to an inefficient and misallocation of scarce resources.
Therefore, it can be summed up that although various poverty alleviation programmes were well planned on papers but these were not implemented properly.