the umayyads and the centralisation of polity

Umayyads were a tribe of Mecca to whom which Uthmān, the third caliph of Islam belonged to. After the assassination of the fourth caliph Ali, Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān, a contemporary of Prophet Muhammad, established the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus in 661 AD which ruled Arabia for a little less than a century and was subsequently defeated by the Abbāsids in 750 AD.

And Centralization of Polity is the consolidation of powers in a political system to a select few. A centralized polity mostly has political and legal power concentrated with a political executive.
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