"there are three kinds of lies-lies, damned lies and Statistics."Explain the statement.

Statistics refers to the aggregates or averages that relate to an enquiry or some relationship. Such aggregates facilitate the presentation of data in a simplified manner. Besides presentation, statistics also enable a reader to make comparison among two or more variables. On the contrary to this, statistics also involve some limitations which often lead to the situation of distrust on statistics and its methods. Such limitations evoked ‘Mark Twain’ of U.S. to introduce a phrase called ‘Lies, Damned lies and Statistics’. This phrase was introduced to highlight the shortcomings (limitations) associated with statistics.


The following are the limitations which resulted in mark of statistics as a lie:

  1. The users of the statistics usually tend to manipulate the data to support their already drawn conclusions, which leads to the situation of distrust and the process of data manipulation.
  2. The statistical figures are made so convincing that people feel bound to trust on such figures.
  3. The readers are often mislead by the way of presentation of data (even if correct). For example, if per capita income of the country increases then it represents the readers to be convinced that the income of all the people in the economy increases. However, if the distribution of income in the economy is inequitable then the income of only a section increases while the other section of population lives in poverty.

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