what are alpha beta and gama diversity?

Alpha, beta and Gamma diversity are the three terms used  for measuring biodiversity over spatial scales, given by Whittaker (1972).
Alpha diversity refers to the diversity within a particular area or ecosystem. It is usually expressed by the number of species (i.e., species richness) in that area.
Beta diversity refers to the diversity obtained by comparing the species diversity between the ecosystems. The total numbers of species that are unique to each of the ecosystems are counted under beta diversity.

Gamma diversity is a measure of the overall diversity for the different ecosystems within a large region. 

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