What are bioreactors? describe both the types. with diagrams

Bio reactor is an apparatus in which a biological reaction or process is carried out. The chemical reactions take place in presence of microorganisms in this bioreactor. It can be aerobic or anaerobic. Sterile air (oxygen bubble) is poured inside a bioreactor to prevent the cake like layer of biomass over the liquid. Biorecator helps to mix the nutrients well with water and keeps the fermentation homogeneous.

There are two types of bioreactors:

  • Simple Stirred Bioreactor: A simple stirred bioreactor is cylindrical with a curved base to help in mixing of contents inside the reactor. There is a stirrer which mixes the contents evenly and supplies oxygen uniformly all over.
  • Sparged Stirred Bioreactor: In a sparged bioreactor the vessel is broader and flat from the bottom. Oxygen is bubbled into the system. Bubbles increase the oxygen transfer area and the shape provides increased surface area for oxygen transfer. 
​​For diagram, you may refer to the study material.

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BIOREACTORS ARE THE LARGE VESSELS in which the bacteria with desired recombinant DNA are cultured ! ! aur ye line thodi omplicated h so thru eg- we introduced insulin producing human gene into a plasmid using biotech now we need large amount of insulin to be prepared so that it can be sold in market ..so we will put such bacteria in bioreactors and provide them optimum conditions for growth like temperature,pH, substrate salts vitamin and oxygen. now the bacteria will grow in such medium and will produce insulin as a result a larlge amount of insulin is produced and by the downstreaming process we can extract the final insulin and that can be sold. hope it clears it ^_^
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and to explain the diagram then the stirrer helps in mixing the contents and oxygen so as to maintain aerobic condition impellers are to mix basically and the froth braker doesnt all the foam to rise up . 
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