What are Bryophytes? explain with2 examples.

What are Pteridophytes?Explain with any 2 examples. 

Bryophytes are non-vascular plants which are commonly known as amphibians of the plant kingdom becausethey can grow on land as well as in water. They require moist habitat for growth. They are not completely aquatic or terrestrial. This is because they do not have specialized vascular tissues. Therefore, they cannot survive in terrestrial habitats.

General features of bryophytes:

  • The plant body is generally differentiated into stem and leaf-like structures.
  • Instead of true roots, rhizoids are present.
  • Specialized vascular tissues for the conduction of water are absent (e.g. xylem).
  • Naked embryos called spores are produced as a result of fertilization.

Bryophytes include mosses, Riccia, Anthoceros, Marchantia, etc.


Pteridophytes are the first vascular plants. They have hidden reproductive organs and do not bear seeds.

General features of pteridophytes:

  • The plant body is differentiated into roots, stems, and leaves.
  • They have specialized, conducting tissues for the conduction of water and other substances.
  • They have inconspicuous or less differentiated reproductive organs.
  • They produce naked embryos called spores.

Some examples of pteridophytes are ferns, Marsilea, Equisetum, and Lycopodium.

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Bryophytes are nonvascular terrestrial plants that first emerged about 420 million years ago. They form the nonmonophyletic grouping Bryophyta and include mosses (Bryophyta), liverworts (Hepatophyta) and hornworts (Anthocerotophyta).
All three of the above mentioned phyla produce spores but not seeds and have dominant gametophytes. All need moisture for sexual reproduction; for the swimming of the male gametes towards the ova. The sporophytes are dependent on the gametophytes and exist on short stalks, called a seta.

The pteridophytes are vascular plants that produce neither flowers nor seeds, and are hence called vascular cryptogams. Instead, they reproduce and disperse only via spores. Pteridophytes include horsetails, ferns, club mosses, and quillworts.

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