what are properties of anode rays x rays cathode rays and alpha particles

Properties of the anode rays:

 

 

1) Anode rays travels in a straight lines.

2) Anode rays consists of material particles.

3) Effect of electric field: Under influence of the electric field anode rays deflected towards the negative plate showing that they themselves are positively charged.

4) Charge to the mass ratio of the particles in the anode rays depends on the nature of the gas taken in the discharge tube.

 

Properties of X rays:

1) X rays are electromagnetic radiation.

2) wavelength range for X ray is 0.01 to 0.1 nm.

3) X rays travel with the speed of light.

4) x rays are high energy waves.

5) x rays travel without undergoing deflection.

 

 

Properties of the cathode rays:

1) Cathode rays travels in a straight lines.

2) When cathode rays are focused on a thin metal foil, it gets heated up to incandescence.

3) Cathode rays consists of material particles: This is indicated by the fact that when a light paddle wheel is placed in the path of cathode rays it starts rotating.

4)Cathode rays ionize the gas through which they passed.

5) Effect of electric field: Under influence of the electric field cathode rays deflected towards the positive plate showing that they themselves are negatively charged.

 

 

Properties of alpha particles:

1) Alpha particles travel in a straight line.

2.Alpha particles are He nuclei or  He2+

3) Alpha particles are emitted when a radioactive atom undergoes decay

 

 

 

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ANODE RAYS:

· Travel in straight lines: They cast a shadow of the objects placed in their way.
· Produce mechanical effect: A paddle wheel placed in their path starts rotating.
· Rays are positively charged: Anode rays are deflected towards the negative plate of an electric field.
· The nature of the anode rays depends upon the gas taken in the discharge tube. Different gases give  different types of positive rays, which contain particles having different masses and different charges.  Therefore the (e/m) ratio is not constant for positive ray particles obtained from different gases.

CATHODE RAYS:

The big breakthrough came in the 1850's when Geissler invented a much better (mercury) pump. In 1869, Hittorf found that in a very good vacuum (0.01 mm Hg), the Faraday dark space expanded to fill the whole tube, and the cathode emitted rays that caused the glass to glow where they hit. In 1876, Goldstein called them "cathode rays". In 1879, an Englishman, William Crookes, declared that they must be particles of some sort, and demonstrated that they traveled in straight lines by inserting a Maltese cross in the tube, which cast a sharp shadow on the end of the tube, a demo still in common use 120 years later!

Were these cathode rays waves or particles? Hertz, with his student Lenard, discovered in 1891 that the rays could penetrate a thin aluminum plate, and detected them in the air just outside the tube. Hertz found experimentally that he could not deflect the rays with an electrostatic field applied from outside the tube, and they didn't affect a compass, so he concluded (wrongly) that they must be waves, not particles.

X RAYS:

All the activity described above did little to clarify the actual nature of x-rays. Roentgen himself found they were undeflected by a magnetic field, so were not charged particles like the cathode rays. On the other hand, they didn't exhibit any diffraction phenomena, so did not seem to be waves. Roentgen, and independently Thomson, found that the x-rays were ionizing radiation - as they passed through air, ions were created. A gold leaf electroscope exposed to the x-rays would lose its charge, as the newly created ions were attracted to the charged leaves.

In 1899, Haga and Wind noticed a slight broadening of an x-ray beam after it passed through a slit a few thousandths of a millimeter wide. This could be from diffraction if the wavelength were of order 10-10 meters. This problem was not resolved conclusively until 1912, when Laue made the observation that since the wavelength of x-rays was apparently similar to the distances between planes of atoms in a crystal, perhaps a crystal would act as a diffraction grating for x-rays. This turned out to be correct, and in fact is now the standard way of finding crystal structure.

It was concluded, then, that x-rays were "ultra- ultra violet light", as one French physicist had put it in 1896.

Once the usefulness of x-rays was established, techniques for producing them evolved rapidly. It was found that they were produced far more copiously if the cathode rays impinged on a piece of heavy metal, such as Molybdenum, rather than glass. The physical picture of x-ray production was that the electrons radiated as they suddenly decelerated on hitting the target, unloading their kinetic energy as radiation (plus some heating of the target). This deceleration radiation is called bremsstrahlung in German, and this word is sometimes used to describe it.

ALPHA PARTICLES:

Alpha particles are composite particles consisting of two protons and two neutrons tightly bound together (Figure 1). They are emitted from the nucleus of some radionuclides during a form of radioactive decay, called alpha-decay. An alpha-particle is identical to the nucleus of a normal (atomic mass 4) helium atom or a doubly ionised helium atom.

Alpha particle

What are the properties of alpha particles?

Alpha particles are relatively slow and heavy compared with other forms of nuclear radiation. The particles travels at 5 to 7 percent of the speed of light or 20,000,000 metres per second and has a mass approximately equivalent to 4 protons.

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Anode Ray:

Properties of the anode rays:

1) Anode rays travels in a straight lines.

2) Anode rays consists of material particles.

3) Effect of electric field: Under influence of the electric field anode rays deflected towards the negative plate showing that they themselves are positively charged.

4) Charge to the mass ratio of the particles in the anode rays depends on the nature of the gas taken in the discharge tube.

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X- ray

The Properties Of X-Ray are divided into 4 headings:
Physical
Chemical
Biological
Physiochemical

A) Physical Properties:
X-Rays are electromagnetic radiations having a wavelength between 10A to 0.01A
In Free Space they travel in a straight line
Speed – 1,86,000 miles/sec (same as that of visible light)
X-rays Cannot be Focused on a Single Point
They are Invisible to Eye.
Cannot be Heard
Cannot be Smelt
They cannot be Reflected, Refracted or Deflected by magnetic or Electric Field
They show properties of Interference, Diffraction and Refraction similar to Visible light
They Produce an Electric field at right angles to their path of propagation
They Produce an Magnetic Field at right angles to the electric field and path of propagation.
They donot require any medium for propagation
Penetration: X-Rays can penetrate liquids, solids and gases. The degree of penetration depends on Quality, intensity and wavelength of Xyray beam.
Absorption: X-Rays are absorbed by matter, the absorption depends on the anatomic structure of the matter and the wavelength of the xray beam.
Ionizing Capability: X-rays interact with materials they penetrate and cause ionization
Fluorescence: when X-Rays fall upon certain materials visible light will be emitted called fluorescence.
X-Rays have the property of Attenuation, Absorption and Scattering
They also show Heating effect

B) Chemical Properties:
X-Ray induces colour changes of several substances or their solutions Ex: Methylene Blue gets Bleached
X-Rays bring about chemical changes in solution because X-Rays produce highly active radical OH ions in water, which react with the solutes.
X-Rays cause destruction of the fermenting powers of Enzymes

C) Biological Properties:
The excitation property of X-Rays are used in treatment of malignant lesions.
X-Rays also have a germicidal or bactericidal effect
Somatic Effect: This ranges from simple Sun Burn to Severe dermatitis or to change in blood supply to malignancy

D) Physiochemical Property:
X-rays are capable of producing an image on a photographic film

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Properties of the cathode rays:

1) Cathode rays travels in a straight lines.

2) When cathode rays are focused on a thin metal foil, it gets heated up to incandescence.

3) Cathode rays consists of material particles: This is indicated by the fact that when a light paddle wheel is placed in the path of cathode rays it starts rotating.

4)Cathode rays ionize the gas through which they passed.

5) Effect of electric field: Under influence of the electric field cathode rays deflected towards the positive plate showing that they themselves are negatively charged

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Alpha particles

Alpha particles (symbol α ) are a type of ionizing radiation ejected by the nuclei of some unstable atoms. They are large subatomic fragments consisting of two protons and two neutrons. Alpha particles are made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, this gives them a strong positive charge.
They are slow moving and can be stopped by a sheet of paper or skin.
Their charge makes them highly ionising which means that they can damage living tissue if they get inside the body.

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