what are rules to convert direct speech to indirect?



Various rules to convert direct into reported speech are:

  • A simple present becomes a simple past;

  • A present continous becomes a past continous;

  • A present perfect becomes a past perfect.

  • The 'shall' of the Future tense is changed into 'should'.

  • The 'will' of the Future tense is changed into 'would' or 'should'.

  • The pronouns of the Direct speech are changed wherever necessary, so that their relations with the reporter and his hearer, rather than with the original speaker, are indicated.

  • Words expressing nearness in time or place are generally changed into words expressing distance. For instance, now becomes then, ago becomes before, tomorrow becomes the nest day and last night becomes the night before.

  • The tenses may not change if the statement is still relevant or if it is a universal truth.

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in reported speech you should convert everything onto past tense

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 hii neha!

Indirect/Reported speech is enclosing what the person said. It doesn't use quotation marks and doesn't have to be word for word.

Indirect speech is usually used to talk about the past. When we use indirect speech, we don’t use inverted comas. We should change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs for example say, askand we may use the word that to introduce the reported words.

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5 main points to be kept in mind

punctuations to be removed

tense change

present - past; past - past perfect

present continuous - past continuous; past perfect - past perfect continuous

introduction of reporting verb

according to the quotes if it is an assertive use said (for qoutes of presidents and higher cadets use told)

if it is an interrogative use asked

if it is an exclamatory use exclaimed

if it is an order, request use requeste, ordered etc.

introduction of 'that'

only if the reporting verb is said, told etc. and not for things like asked

introduction of 'if or whether'

if the words in the quotes are interrogative and yes/no type

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whats this URL?????


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change ur avatar man,Its worse 

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