what are rules to convert direct speech to indirect?
Various rules to convert direct into reported speech are:
A simple present becomes a simple past;
A present continous becomes a past continous;
A present perfect becomes a past perfect.
The 'shall' of the Future tense is changed into 'should'.
The 'will' of the Future tense is changed into 'would' or 'should'.
The pronouns of the Direct speech are changed wherever necessary, so that their relations with the reporter and his hearer, rather than with the original speaker, are indicated.
Words expressing nearness in time or place are generally changed into words expressing distance. For instance, now becomes then, ago becomes before, tomorrow becomes the nest day and last night becomes the night before.
The tenses may not change if the statement is still relevant or if it is a universal truth.
Indirect/Reported speech is enclosing what the person said. It doesn't use quotation marks and doesn't have to be word for word.
Indirect speech is usually used to talk about the past. When we use indirect speech, we don’t use inverted comas. We should change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs for example say, ask, and we may use the word that to introduce the reported words.
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5 main points to be kept in mind
punctuations to be removed
present - past; past - past perfect
present continuous - past continuous; past perfect - past perfect continuous
introduction of reporting verb
according to the quotes if it is an assertive use said (for qoutes of presidents and higher cadets use told)
if it is an interrogative use asked
if it is an exclamatory use exclaimed
if it is an order, request use requeste, ordered etc.
introduction of 'that'
only if the reporting verb is said, told etc. and not for things like asked
introduction of 'if or whether'
if the words in the quotes are interrogative and yes/no type