What are some special features in arthropoda

Phylum Arthropoda

The word ‘Arthropoda’ means ‘animals with jointed legs’. It is the largest phylum of the animal kingdom and includes more than 900000 species.

General features of arthropods

  • They are found everywhere on Earth.
  • An arthropod has a segmented body like that of an annelid. The body is divided into three regions—the head, the thorax and the abdomen.
  • The body is covered by an exoskeleton made of chitin.
  • Arthropods have an organ system level of organization.
  • They show bilateral symmetry. They are triploblastic animals. Schizocoelom is present.
  • They have certain advanced features.
  • A distinct head is present. There are jointed legs for moving around.
  • An open circulatory system is present, i.e., blood does not flow in well-defined blood vessels. Thus, their coelomic cavity is filled with blood.
  • Examples of arthropods: crab, Palaemon (prawn), insect, spider, scorpion, centipede, millipede, cockroach, housefly, mosquito

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All Arthropods share certain characteristics making them unique from other phyla. Most obvious is the external skeleton (technically, not really a shell). Not only does this exoskeleton protect the animal like a suit of armor, but it actually does serve as the animal's skeleton. The muscles of an Arthropod are connected to the inside of the exoskeleton, because the animal lacks an internal skeleton of any type. 

- Arthropods have what is called an open circulatory system. This means that unlike many other kinds of animals, they have no arteries, veins or capillaries to carry blood. Instead, blood is pumped through sinuses (open spaces) within the animal to reach the tissues. 

- Arthropods also have compound eyes. Most people know of the insect's compound eyes, and the other Arthropods' eyes are no different. Each eye is composed of many smaller light-sensitive organs, called ommatidia. Together, these ommatidia form a single working eye. The compound eye is not specialized so much for detailed sight as for the detection of motion. 

- The exoskeleton is made of a tough substance called chitin (KIE-tin). The animal secretes this hard material from cells in the underlying epidermis. Because the exoskeleton cannot grow, the animal must periodically shed its armor in order to grow. 

- There are nearly 1 million species of Arthropods, with over 90% of them being insects. Of the remaining less than 10%, or about 85,000 species, there are only three major marine groups
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Arthropoda are the largest phylum
1. have  chitinous exoskeleton - muscles are connected to exoskeleton since they don't have internal skeleton
2. body consist of head thorax and abdomen 
3. open circulatory
4.have malpighian tubules for excretion
5. oviparous
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