what are the applications of biotechnology in the field of agriculture?
Biotechnological applications in agriculture are mainly implemented for increasing food production.Agro-chemical based agriculture, organic agriculture were replaced by genetically engineered crop-based agriculture.Increased yields and improved crop varieties are achieved by the use of agrochemicals (fertilisers and pesticides).
Since, agrochemicals are often too expensive and produce harmful effects, use of genetically modified crops is considered as a possible solution. Plants, bacteria, fungi and animals whose genes have been altered by manipulation are called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). GM plants have been useful in many ways. They help to tolerate to abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salt, heat), reduced reliance on chemical pesticides (pest-resistant crops), helped to reduce post harvest losses, increased efficiency of mineral usage by plants and enhanced nutritional value of food, e.g., Vitamin ‘A’ enriched rice.
Also GM plants helps to create tailor-made plants to supply alternative resources to industries, in the form of starches, fuels and pharmaceuticals. Bt toxin gene helps to resist against insects without the insecticides. Thus, the biotechnology applications enabled the mass production of safe and more effective agricultural products.