what are the limitations of amplitude modulation?
In amplitude modulation, the sidebands contain the signal. The power in the sidebands is the only useful power. The power carrier by the side bands is only 33.3% even when there is 100% modulation. If modulation is 50%, then power carried by the sidebands is 11.1%. Clearly, the useful power is small. So, the amplitude modulation has low efficiency.
Different types of atmospheric and other electrical disturbance are reproduced in amplitude modulation receivers. This makes the reception noisy.
Due to small useful power the messages cannot be transmitted over large distance. So, the transmitter based on amplitude modulation has small range.