what are the similarities and differences between digestion in ruminants and in human?




Specialized tongue and lip for grasping and tearing.

Well developed molars and premolars for grinding, movement is "lateral".

In most ruminants upper teeth replaced by "Dental Pad".

A gap between premolars and molars allows the tongue to manipulate the food into small amounts prior to swallowing.

Mouth is taken to food.

Complex digestive system (Four Stomachs).

Regurgitation of cud for chewing at rest, one set of teeth for life, teeth wear flat, with the age.

Protein needs supplied by rumen bacteria.

Herbivores - no meat.


Upper and lower teeth movement is "Vertical" Incisors and canine produce shearing action, used for cutting food, premolars and molars for grinding and crushing.

Two sets of teeth - loss through decay and improper nutrition - replaced by dentures (False Teeth).

Food is taken to mouth.

Digestive System (one stomach).

Protein is a dietary requirement and is provided by the intake of various foods.

Vomiting more common in carnivores and omnivores. Forceful ejection of gastric contents from the mouth.

Variety of foods to obtain various other nutrients.

Ill health, weather changes, irritability and stress, may have an effect on digestive processes.

Omnivores - meat and plants.


Food, water, and oxygen to sustain life, we require similar nutrients and produce waste products.

hope this helps.

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