What are the two major sources of human capital in a country?
Human capital is a stock of skill and expertise of a nation at a particular point of time. The contribution of human skills and expertise towards economic growth and development is invaluable. This is because a stock of quality enriched human capital raises individual efficiency and productivity thereby raising the aggregate production and economic well being of a country. Thus, the importance of investment in enriching human capital is immense and long lasting. The following are the two prime ways o to develop human capital qualitatively:
i. Investment in Educational Sector: Education not only raises the standard and quality of living but also encourages modern attitude of the people. Moreover, education increases the productive capacity and productivity of a nation’s workforce by honing their skills. Further, education increases the acceptability of modern techniques and also facilitates a primitive economy to break the shackles of tradition and backwardness. An investment in educational sector has two fold benefits. It not only increases the income earning capacity but also reduces the skewed distribution of income thereby forming an egalitarian society. The investment in educational sector has long lasting returns. It not only enhances the present economic condition but also improves the future prospects of a country. The importance of education is not only limited to making people educated. but also in facilitating an underdeveloped economy to solve different but interrelated macro economic problems like, poverty, income inequality, population, investments, under utilisation of resources. Therefore, investment in education must be accorded high priority in an underdeveloped country as it leads to the enhancement of human capital qualitatively.
ii. Investment in Health Sector: There is a saying “The greatest wealth is health”. The wealth of a country can be increased with the efforts of healthy workforce. Investment in health sector increases efficiency, efficacy and productivity of a nation’s workforce. In contrast to an unhealthy person, a healthy person can work better with more efficiency and, consequently, can contribute relatively more to the GDP of the country. Good health and medical facilities not only increase life expectancy but also improves quality and standard of life. Investment in health sector ensures the perennial supply of healthy workforce. Some of the common expenditures incurred in the health sector are on providing better medical facilities, easy availability of life saving drugs, common vaccination, spread of medical knowledge, provision of proper sanitation and clean drinking water, etc. Thus, the expenditure incurred on health is important in building and maintaining a productive work force that in turn leads to the development of quality human capital in a country.