What do you mean by Human Development Index?
A tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries’ levels of social and economic development based on four criteria: Life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita. The HDI makes it possible to track changes in development levels over time and to compare development levels in different countries.
It may be defined as the process of widening people's choice as well as raising the level of well being. The concept of HDI goes beyond income and growth to cover all human development with the object of improving the conditions of people from all angles. It is a broader approach to development.
A composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living. The following are the basic components of Human Development Index:
- Life expectancy at birth
- Mean years of schooling
- Expected years of schooling
- Gross national income (GNI) per capita
United Nations calculates the HDI for the U.N. members. Mahbub ul Haq and Amartya Sen were the pioneers in HDI calculation.