what is a water table?
The water that is found under the surface of the Earth and is responsible for the presence of water in the wells, tube wells, and springs is called ground water. The porous regions in the soil and gaps in between the rocks are filled with this ground water. The upper limit of this layer of ground water, which fills into all the porous spaces between the soils, is called the water table.
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The water table is the surface where the water pressure head is equal to the atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure = 0). It may be conveniently visualized as the "surface" of the subsurface materials that are saturated with groundwater in a given vicinity. However, saturated conditions may extend above the water table as surface tension holds water in some pores below atmospheric pressure. Individual points on the water table are typically measured as the elevation that the water rises to in a well screened in the shallow groundwater.
water table, also called Groundwater Table, upper level of an underground surface in which the soil or rocks are permanently saturated with water. The water table separates the groundwater zone that lies below it from the capillary fringe, or zone of aeration, that lies above it. The water table fluctuates both with the seasons and from year to year because it is affected by climatic variations and by the amount of precipitation used by vegetation. It also is affected by withdrawing excessive amounts of water from wells or by recharging them artificially. See also aquifer.