what is direct and indirect speech please explain me?

Dear student,

Direct or quoted speech is a sentence (or several sentences) that reports speech or thought in its original form, as phrased by the original speaker. It is usually enclosed in quotation marks.

Indirect speech, also called reported speech or indirect discourse, is a means of expressing the content of statements, question without quoting them as is done in direct speech. For example, He said "I'm coming" is direct speech, whereas He said he was coming is indirect speech.

Let us understand the concept of reported speech clearer here:

We may report the words of a speaker in two ways- We can either quote his actual words which would then be called direct speech.

For instance,

  • Ethan said, “I am very busy right now.”

  • Farhan asked, “Why didn't you come?”

    We may also report what he said without quoting his exact words.

    For instance,

  • Ethan said that he was very busy then;

  • Farhan asked why I didn't go.

While changing the voice, few rules need to be taken into consideration such as:

  • A simple present becomes a simple past;

  • A present continuous becomes a past continuous;

  • A present perfect becomes a past perfect

For instance,

  • She said, “I don't want to go.” becomes She said that she didn't want to go.

  • She said, “I am not going.” becomes She said that she wasn't going.

  • She said, “I didn't go.” becomes She said that she hadn't gone.

Various rules to convert direct into reported speech are:

  • A simple present becomes a simple past;

  • A present continuous becomes a past continuous;

  • A present perfect becomes a past perfect.

  • The 'shall' of the Future tense is changed into 'should'.

  • The 'will' of the Future tense is changed into 'would' or 'should'.

  • The pronouns of the Direct speech are changed wherever necessary, so that their relations with the reporter and his hearer, rather than with the original speaker, are indicated.

  • Words expressing nearness in time or place are generally changed into words expressing distance. For instance, now becomes then, ago becomes before, tomorrow becomes the nest day and last night becomes the night before.

  • The tenses may not change if the statement is still relevant or if it is a universal truth.


Regards

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Direct or quoted speech is a sentence that reports speech or thought in its original form, as phrased by the first speaker. It is usually enclosed in quatation mark. The cited speaker is either mentioned in the "he says"or implied.

examples

  • He said, "It's raining."
  • "It's raining," he thought.
  • "It's cold outside," he said, "and it's starting to rain."
  • "How is the weather?" — "It's cold outside." — "Yes, and it's starting to rain."
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 Free indirect speech is a style of third-person narration which uses some of the characteristics of third-person along with the essence of first-person direct speech. (It is also referred to as free indirect discoursefree indirect style, or discours indirect libre in 

Examples

He laid down his bundle and thought of his misfortune. "And just what pleasure have I found, since I came into this world?" he asked.
He laid down his bundle and thought of his misfortune. He asked himself what pleasure he had found since he came into the world.
  • Free indirect speech:
He laid down his bundle and thought of his misfortune. And just what pleasure had he found, since he came into this world?

French.)

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thumbs up plsss.........

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