what is EL Nino effect
El Nino Effect:-
El Nino is characterized by variations in the temperature of the surface of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean- warming or cooling known as El Nio and La Nia respectively. The two variations are coupled. The warm oceanic phase, El Nio, accompanies high air surface pressure in the western Pacific.
El Nio is Spanish word for "the little boy" and refers to the Christ child, because periodic warming in the Pacific near South America is usually noticed around Christmas.
El Nino is aquasiperiodicclimate patternthat occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean roughly every five years. The Southern Oscillation refers to variations in the temperature of the surface of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (warming and cooling known as El Niño and La Niña respectively) and in air surface pressure in the tropical western Pacific. The two variations are coupled: the warm oceanic phase, El Niño, accompanies high air surface pressure in the western Pacific, while the cold phase, accompanies low air surface pressure in the western Pacific. Mechanisms that cause the oscillation remain under study.
El Niño is defined by prolonged differences in Pacific Ocean surface temperatures when compared with the average value. The accepted definition is a warming or cooling of at least 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) averaged over the east-central tropical Pacific Ocean. Typically, this anomaly happens at irregular intervals of 2–7 years and lasts nine months to two years. The average period length is 5 years. When this warming or cooling occurs for only seven to nine months, it is classified as El Niño/La Niña "conditions"; when it occurs for more than that period, it is classified as El Niño/La Niña "episodes".
The first signs of an El Niño are:
- Rise in surface pressure over the Indian Ocean, Indonesia, and Australia
- Fall in air pressure over Tahiti and the rest of the central and eastern Pacific Ocean
- Trade winds in the south Pacific weaken or head east
- Warm air rises near Peru, causing rain in the northern Peruvian deserts
Warm water spreads from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific. It takes the rain with it, causing extensive drought in the western Pacific and rainfall in the normally dry eastern Pacific.