what is exactly dipole moment
A dipole is simply defined as a system of two equal and opposite charges separated by a small distance. Every dipole possesses a dipole moment, which is defined as a product of charge and distance between two opposite charge. It is a vector quantity. Following is the figure of a dipole
Here, two equal and opposite charges q and (-q) are separated by a small distance 2a. The dipole moment of this dipole will be
Thus we can say that in a dipole, the positive and the negative charges are present separately. In molecules, a dipole is generated due to the difference in the electronegativities of the atoms forming the molecule.
it is defined as the product magnitude of charge on the atoms and the distance between the two bonded atom.
Dipole moment can be defined as the product of magnitude of charge & distance of separation between the charges. Dipole momentmay refer to:
- Electric dipole moment, the measure of the electrical polarity of a system of charges
- Transition dipole moment, the electrical dipole moment in quantum mechanics
- Bond dipole moment, the measure of polarity of a chemical bond
- Electron electric dipole moment, the measure of the charge distribution within an electron
- Magnetic dipole moment, the measure of the magnetic polarity of a system of charges
- Nuclear magnetic moment, the magnetic moment of an atomic nucleus
- Molecular dipole moment, the electric dipole moment of a molecule.
- Topological dipole moment, the measure of the topological defect charge distribution
- The second order coefficient of the multipole expansion of a function