What is Gemma Cups.....??????
Bryophytes engage in a kind of asexual reproduction referred to as fragmentation. It involves the splitting off of a single cell, a mass of cells or a bud from the top surface of the thallus of the parent. The gemma is one such budding structure, and liverworts such as Marchantia produce gemmae which are cup shaped and hence called gemma cups. The gemma cups fall off from the parent thallus during the rains and fall to the ground or the surface on which the parent is growing. Each cup gives rise to a new individual.