What is meant by hydrogenation of vegetables oil ?
Hydrogenation of vegetable oils means that molecular hydrogen in reacted with unsaturated vegetable oils to provide vegetable oils which are partially or fully saturated. It means to reduce or remove double bonds bonds present in the oil. This process is carried out in the presence of a catalyst. Hydrogenation of vegetable oils produces vegetable oils which have higher melting point.
R= hydrogen atom or an alkyl group
Catalysts used are generally platinum, palladium, raney nickel
R2 C=CR2 + H → R2 CH-CHR2
Hydrogenation is a process in which hydrogen is added to unsaturated compounds in the presence of Nickel as catalyst at 473 K inorder to make the compound saturated.
It is used in many industries to manufacture vegetable ghee from vegetable oil . The oils containing unsaturated fatty acids are hydrogenated to form vegetable ghee containing saturated fats
Oils have been hydrogenated for many decades, to prolong their shelf life and make the oils more stable. Hydrogenated oil is oil in which the essential fatty acids have been converted to a different form chemically, which has several effects. Hydrogenated oil is far more shelf stable, and will not go rancid as quickly as untreated oil. It also has a higher melting point, and is often used in frying and pastries for this reason. When hydrogenated, the chemical structure of the oil is changed, which scientists in the 1990s began to realize could result in negative health effects.
Hydrogenated oil is made by forcing hydrogen gas into oil at high pressure. Both animal and vegetable fats can be and are hydrogenated. In general, the more solid the oil is, the more hydrogenated it is.