what is pronoun? give it type with example

Pronouns are words which are used as a substitute of noun. It helps to avoid recurrence or repetition of nouns in a sentence or a paragraph. 

Various pronouns frequently used are I, You, He, She, It, We and They.

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PRONOUN is a word that can function by itself as a noun phrase and that refers either to the participants in the discourse (e.g., I, you) or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the discourse (e.g., she, it, this).

Demonstrative Pronouns
These pronouns are used to demonstrate (or indicate). This, that, these and those are all demonstrative pronouns.

Examples:

This is the one I left in the car.
(In this example, the speaker could be indicating to a mobile phone, in which
case, the pronoun "this" replaces the words "mobile phone".)

Shall I take those?
Indefinite Pronouns
Unlike demonstrative pronouns, which point out specific items, indefinite pronouns are used for non-specific things. This is the largest group of pronouns. All, some, any, several, anyone, nobody, each, both, few, either, none, one and no one are the most common.

Example:

Somebody must have seen the driver leave.
(somebody - not a specific person)
We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars. (Oscar Wilde)
I have nothing to declare except my genius. (Oscar Wilde)
Interrogative Pronouns
These pronouns are used in questions. Although they are classified as pronouns, it is not easy to see how they replace nouns. Who, which, what, where and how are all interrogative pronouns.

Example:

Who told you to do that?
Possessive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns are used to show possession. As they are used as adjectives, they are also known as 'possessive adjectives'. My, your, his, her, its, our and their are all possessive pronouns.

Have you seen her book?
(In this example, the pronoun "her" replaces a word like "Sarah's".)
Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns are used to add more information to a sentence. Which, that, who (including whom and whose) and where are all relative pronouns.

Examples:

Dr Adam Sissons, who lectured at Cambridge for more than 12 years, should
have known the difference.
(In this example, the relative pronoun "who" introduces the clause "who studied
at Cambridge for 12 years" and refers back to "Dr Adams Sissons".)

The man who first saw the comet reported it as a UFO.
(In this example, the relative pronoun "who" introduces the clause "who first
saw the comet" and refers back to "the man".)
Absolute Possessive Pronouns
These pronouns also show possession. Unlike possessive pronouns (see above), which are adjectives to nouns, these pronouns sit by themselves. Mine, yours, his, hers, ours and theirs are all absolute possessive pronouns.

Examples:

The tickets are as good as ours.

Shall we take yours or theirs?
Reciprocal Pronouns
Reciprocal pronouns are used for actions or feelings that are reciprocated. The two most common reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another.

Examples:

They like one another.

They talk to each other like they're babies.
Reflexive Pronouns
A reflexive pronoun ends ...self or ...selves and refers to another noun or pronoun in the sentence. The reflexive pronouns are: myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves.

Example:

John bakes all the bread himself.
(In this example, the reflexive pronoun "himself" refers back to the noun "John".)

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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (Lat: pronomen) is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun (or noun phrase), such as, in English, the words it (substituting for the name of a certain object) and she (substituting for the female name of a person). The replaced noun is called the antecedent of the pronoun.

There are six types of pronouns to consider:

(1) personal pronoun: Personal pronouns stand in for people, places, things and ideas.

(2) relative pronoun: A relative pronoun relates to another noun preceding it in the sentence. In doing so, it connects a dependent clause to an antecedent (i.e., a noun that precedes the pronoun.) Therefore, a relative pronoun acts as the subject or object of the dependent clause.

(3) indefinite pronoun: Indefinite pronouns refer to an unknown or undetermined person, place or thing.

(4) demonstrative pronoun: Demonstrative pronouns stand in for a person, place or thing that must be pointed to. They may function as subjects, objects or objects of the preposition.

(5) interrogative pronoun: Interrogative pronouns are aptly named. They basically stand in for the answer to the question being asked.

(6) reflexive pronoun: Reflexive pronouns "reflect" the person to whom the pronoun refers. 

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Demonstrative Pronouns


These pronouns are used to demonstrate (or indicate). This, that, these and those are all demonstrative pronouns.

Examples:

This is the one I left in the car.
(In this example, the speaker could be indicating to a mobile phone, in which
case, the pronoun "this" replaces the words "mobile phone".)

Shall I take those?


Indefinite Pronouns


Unlike demonstrative pronouns, which point out specific items, indefinite pronouns are used for non-specific things. This is the largest group of pronouns. All, some, any, several, anyone, nobody, each, both, few, either, none, one and no one are the most common.

Example:

Somebody must have seen the driver leave.
(somebody - not a specific person)
We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars. (Oscar Wilde)
I have nothing to declare except my genius. (Oscar Wilde)


Interrogative Pronouns
These pronouns are used in questions. Although they are classified as pronouns, it is not easy to see how they replace nouns. Who, which, what, where and how are all interrogative pronouns.

Example:

Who told you to do that?
Possessive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns are used to show possession. As they are used as adjectives, they are also known as 'possessive adjectives'. My, your, his, her, its, our and their are all possessive pronouns.

Have you seen her book?
(In this example, the pronoun "her" replaces a word like "Sarah's".)


Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns are used to add more information to a sentence. Which, that, who (including whom and whose) and where are all relative pronouns.

Examples:

Dr Adam Sissons, who lectured at Cambridge for more than 12 years, should
have known the difference.
(In this example, the relative pronoun "who" introduces the clause "who studied
at Cambridge for 12 years" and refers back to "Dr Adams Sissons".)

The man who first saw the comet reported it as a UFO.
(In this example, the relative pronoun "who" introduces the clause "who first
saw the comet" and refers back to "the man".)


Absolute Possessive Pronouns


These pronouns also show possession. Unlike possessive pronouns (see above), which are adjectives to nouns, these pronouns sit by themselves. Mine, yours, his, hers, ours and theirs are all absolute possessive pronouns.

Examples:

The tickets are as good as ours.

Shall we take yours or theirs?


Reciprocal Pronouns
Reciprocal pronouns are used for actions or feelings that are reciprocated. The two most common reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another.

Examples:

They like one another.

They talk to each other like they're babies.


Reflexive Pronouns


A reflexive pronoun ends ...self or ...selves and refers to another noun or pronoun in the sentence. The reflexive pronouns are: myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves.

Example:

John bakes all the bread himself.
(In this example, the reflexive pronoun "himself" refers back to the noun "John".)

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pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun, such as, in English, the words it (substituting for the name of a certain object) and she (substituting for the female name of a person). The replaced noun is called the antecedent of the pronoun.

Examples
  • I love you.
  • That reminds me of something.
  • He looked at them.
  • Take it or leave it.
  • Who would say such a thing?

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