what is the difference between the word "my" and "mine" ?

'My' is a possessive adjective. It is immediately followed by a noun.

For example:  This is my book.

'Mine' is a possessive pronoun. It shows ownership.

For example: The book lying on the table is mine.

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 "My" is an adjective. 
This is my friend. 

This is your, his, her, its, our, your, their friend. 

This is my book 

"Mine" is a possessive pronoun. 
This is a friend of mine. = This is my friend. 

This is a friend of mine, of yours, of his, of hers, of ours, of yours,of theirs. 

This book is mine. (yours, his, hers, ours yours, theirs) 

His cat is black. Mine is white. 

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