what is the difference between tribes in the colonial period and the tribes living today ?
The following points may help you to draw comparisons:
Tribes duing colonial period were impacted by exploitative colonial policies:
a. Tribes represent a section of society who do not follow the social rules and rituals of the mainstream society .Many tribes obtain their livelihood from agriculture, they were hunter-gatherers or herders, talk about jhum cultivation etc.
b. Forest Acts were enacted in the different provinces, Through these Acts some forests which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared ‘Reserved’. Other forests were classified as ‘Protected’, Villagers were denied access to reserved forests.
c. Powers of the Tribal chiefs changed. They had to abide by the British officials and laws.
d. Jhum culitivation was banned in Reserved foresst.
e. Taxes were imposed on people.
f, Grazing and hunting were restricted as a result many nomadic communities lost their livelihood.
g. It brought about displacement of people.
Tribes in the present time:
a. Tribes basically represent a sustainable approach to life.
b.They have pressurised government for the recognition of their rights, for support, subsidies.
c. They have demanded access to new areas, which governemnt has responded from time to time
d. There are also contitutional safeguards to protect them like Schedule caste and Schedule Tribes Act 1989
e. The central government passed the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 which safeguards the rights of the forest dwellers.
g. These tribes over the years have also demanded a say in the management of forest resources.