what is the meaning of ectopic pregnancies?

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 An ectopic pregnancy, or eccysis, is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside the uterine cavity.[1] With rare exceptions, ectopic pregnancies are not viable. Furthermore, they are dangerous for the mother, since internal haemorrhage is a life-threatening complication. Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tube (so-called tubal pregnancies), but implantation can also occur in the cervixovaries, and abdomen. An ectopic pregnancy is a potentialmedical emergency, and, if not treated properly, can lead to death.

In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg enters the uterus and settles into the uterine lining where it has plenty of room to divide and grow. About 1% of pregnancies are in an ectopic location with implantation not occurring inside of the womb, and of these 98% occur in the Fallopian tubes.

Detection of ectopic pregnancy in early gestation has been achieved mainly due to enhanced diagnostic capability. Despite all these notable successes in diagnostics and detection techniques ectopic pregnancy remains a source of serious maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in countries with poor prenatal care.[2]

In a typical ectopic pregnancy, the embryo adheres to the lining of the fallopian tube and burrows into the tubal lining. Most commonly this invades vessels and will cause bleeding. This intratubal bleeding hematosalpinx expels the implantation out of the tubal end as a tubal abortion. Tubal abortion is a common type of miscarriage. There is no inflammation of the tube in ectopic pregnancy. The pain is caused by prostaglandins released at the implantation site, and by free blood in the peritoneal cavity, which is a local irritant. Sometimes the bleeding might be heavy enough to threaten the health or life of the woman. Usually this degree of bleeding is due to delay in diagnosis, but sometimes, especially if the implantation is in the proximal tube (just before it enters the uterus), it may invade into the nearby Sampson artery, causing heavy bleeding earlier than usual.

If left untreated, about half of ectopic pregnancies will resolve without treatment. These are the tubal abortions. The advent of methotrexate treatment for ectopic pregnancy has reduced the need for surgery; however, surgical intervention is still required in cases where the Fallopian tube has ruptured or is in danger of doing so. This intervention may be laparoscopic or through a larger incision, known as a laparotomy.

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*An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that occurs outside the womb (uterus).  It is a life-threatening condition to the mother. The baby (foetus) cannot survive.*

causes :An ectopic pregnancy is often caused by a condition that blocks or slows the movement of a fertilized egg through the fallopian tube to the uterus. Such causes include:

Birth defect in the fallopian tubes
Complications of a ruptured appendix
Having an ectopic pregnancy before
Scarring from past infections or surgery
The following also increase your risk for an ectopic pregnancy:

Age over 35
Getting pregnant while having an intrauterine device (IUD)
Had surgery to untie tubes (tubal sterilization) to become pregnant
Having had many sexual partners
In vitro fertilization
Having your tubes tied (tubal ligation) - more likely 2 or more years after the procedure
Sometimes the cause is unknown. Hormones may play a role.

Ectopic pregnancies occur in 1 in every 40 to 1 in every 100 pregnancies.

The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy is within one of the tubes through which the egg passes from the ovary to the uterus. However, in rare cases, ectopic pregnancies can occur in the ovary, stomach area, or cervix.
You may have early pregnancy symptoms, such as breast tenderness or nausea. Other symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include:
Abnormal vaginal bleeding
Low back pain
Mild cramping on one side of the pelvis
No periods
Pain in the lower belly or pelvic area
If the area around the abnormal pregnancy ruptures and bleeds, symptoms may get worse. They may include:

Fainting or feel faint
Intense pressure in the rectum
Low blood pressure
Pain in the shoulder area
Severe, sharp, and sudden pain in the lower abdomen
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