Which cations cause hardness in water ?

Dear Student,

The main Cations that causes hardness in water are Magnesium ions (Mg2+) and Calcium ions (Ca2+). From their Salts with Carbonate ions (CO32-) and Bicarbonate ions (HCO3-).

Hope this information clears your doubts about the topic.

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Presence of multivalent cations is the main reason for the hardness of water. Ex:- Ca^2+ , Mg^2+ , Al^3+ etc ....I hope it will help you
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